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Knee, ankle and foot

Muscles and movements

MuscleOriginInsertionMovementJointMisc. Info
Vastus medialis Medial lip of linea aspera, intertrochanteric line Medial border of patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Extension Anterior knee Uniarticular muscle of quadriceps femoris; "tear drop" muscle
Vastus intermedius Anterior, lateral femur Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament (quadriceps tendon) Extension Anterior knee Uniarticular muscle of quadriceps femoris; deep to rectus femoris; weakest quad
Vastus lateralis Greater trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, lateral lip of linea aspera, intertrochanteric line Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Extension Anterior knee Uniarticular muscle of quadriceps femoris; role in chondromalacia patella; largest quad
Biceps femoris (short head) Linea aspera (distal half) Apex/head of fibula Flexion; external rotation (tibia) (unloaded leg) Posterior knee Lateral hamstrings; some people don't have, or runs into long head
Popliteus Lateral condyle (femur) Posterior proximal tibia, lateral meniscus Flexion, medial rotation (tibia) (unloaded leg) Posterior knee Unlocks knee
Gastrocnemius Posterior distal femur near medial condyle (medial); posterior distal femur near lateral condyle, fabella (lateral); popliteal surface of femur (3rd) Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') tendon Flexion (assists); plantarflexion Posterior knee, posterior ankle Fabella: sesamoid bone (30% have)
Plantaris Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur Posterior calcaneus (can merge with Achilles') Flexion (assists); plantarflexion (assists) Posterior knee, posterior ankle "Freshman nerve"; surgical grafts; 10% don't have
Soleus Posterior proximal tibia, fibula Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Plantarflexion Posterior ankle (superficial) With gastrocnemius: "triceps surae"; "peripheral heart"; primary muscle to correct for swaying while standing; lots of type II fibers
Tibialis posterior Posterior lateral tibia, posterior medial fibula (not interosseous membrane) Plantar surface of navicular, cuneiforms and cuboid, bases of metatarsals (2-4), sustentaculumtali Plantarflexion (assists), inversion Posterior ankle (deep), subtalar Attaches to every tarsal and metatarsal except talus and metatarsals 1,5
Flexor digitorum longus Medial posterior tibia Plantar surfaces of distal phalanges (2-5) via split tendons Flexion (toes), plantarflexion (assists), inversion Posterior ankle (deep), subtalar, foot Passes through split tendons of flexor digitorum brevis; splits like flexor digitorum superficialis (hand); passes behind, superior to sustentaculum tali and medial malleolus (tibia)
Flexor hallucis longus Distal posterior fibula, interosseous membrane Plantar surface of distal phalanx of hallux Flexion (hallux), plantarflexion (assists) Posterior ankle (deep), foot Huge role during gait; large for a deep muscle; crosses inferior to sustentaculum tali; tibialis posterior is slightly superior (more "next to")
Peroneus longus Oroximal lateral fibula (2/3), (lateral tibial condyle) Base of 1st metatarsal, lateral side of medial cuneiform Plantarflexion (assists), eversion Lateral ankle, subtalar Peroneal/fibular muscle: most superficial, biggest, held in by peroneal retinacula; corss outside ankle joint, under foot; fairly weak
Peroneus brevis Distal lateral fibula (2/3) Dorsolateral surface of 5th metatarsal Plantarflexion (assists), eversion Lateral ankle, subtalar Peroneal/fibular muscle: held in by peroneal retinacula
Peroneus tertius Distal anterior fibula, interosseous membrane Dorsal surface of base of 5th metatarsal Dorsiflexion, eversion Anterior ankle, subtalar Peroneal/fibular muscle
Tibialis anterior Lateral tibial condyle, interosseous membrane Plantar surface of medial cuneiform, base of 1st metatarsal Dorsiflexion, inversion Anterior ankle, subtalar Prevents toe dragging; shin splints; most powerful anterior muscle
Extensor digitorum longus Lateral tibial condyle, anterior fibula, interosseous membrane Dorsal surfaces of bases of middle/distal phalanges (2-5) via split tendons Dorsiflexion (assists), eversion (weak), extension (toes 2-5) Anterior ankle, subtalar, foot
Extensor hallucis longus Anterior fibula, interosseous membrane Dorsal surface of distal phalanx of hallux Dorsiflexion, extension of hallux Anterior ankle, foot
Extensor digitorum brevis Dorsal calcaneous, inferior band of extensor retinaculum Extensor digitorum longus tendons (merges) (lateral sides of toes 2-4) Extension (toes 2-4) Dorsal foot Intrinsic muscle of foot; does not insert onto bone
Created by: ktpognc