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Elbow, wrist, hand

Muscles and movements

MuscleOriginInsertionMovementJointMisc. Info
Triceps brachii Infraglenoid tubercle (long); proximal posterolateral humerus (lateral); distal posteromedial humerus (medial) Olecranon process of ulna (common tendon) Shoulder extension; elbow extension Elbow (posterior) Primary elbow extensor
Anconeus Lateral epicondyle of humerus Olecranon process (lateral) Extension Elbow (posterior) Synergist (not a great mechanical advantage); fan-shape/broad attachment at ulna
Pronator teres Medial epicondyle of humerus (humeral); coronoid process of ulna (ulnar) Middle lateral radius Pronation; assists with elbow flexion Forearm (anterior, superficial) Under brachioradialis
Palmaris Longus Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) Palmar aponeurosis Assists with wrist flexion Forearm (anterior, superficial) Absent in ~25%; runs superior to carpal tunnel; animals have to expose claws
Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) Base of 2nd metacarpal; base of 3rd metacarpal Wrist flexion, radial deviation Forearm (anterior, superficial) Palpate during wrist and MCP/IP flexion; lateral to palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon); proximal posterior elna Pisiform, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal Wrist flexion, ulnar deviation Forearm (anterior, superficial)
Flexor digitorum superficialis Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon), ulna, radius, interosseous membrane Middle phalanx of 4 fingers (splits) Flexes proximal interphalangeal joints 2-5; assists with wrist flexion Forearm (anterior, deep) Each insertion splits at proximal phalanx and attaches to sides to create opening that allows flexor digitorum profundus to go through to attach to distal phalanx
Flexor digitorum profundus Ulna, interosseous membrane Distal phalanx of fingers 2-5 Flexion of DIP joints; assists in flexion of PIP and MCP joints; assists with wrist flexion Forearm (anterior, deep) Palpate proximal-anterior forearm during IP flexion; directly under flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor pollicis longus Middle anterior radius, interosseous membrane Distal phalanx of thumb Flexion of thumb IP and MCP joint Forearm (anterior, deep) Long muscle that flexes thumb (pollyx); runs through flexor retinaculum
Pronator quadratus Distal anterior ulna Distal anterior radius Pronation (principal) Forearm (deepest anterior) Only muscle that only attaches to radius and ulna
External carpi radialis longus/brevis Lateral supracondylar ridge (lower 1/3) (longus); lateral epicondyle of humerus (brevis) Base of 2nd metacarpal (longus); base of 3rd metacarpal (brevis) Wrist extension/hyperextension; radial deviation Forearm (posterior, superficial) External carpi radialis longus originates just distally to brachioradialis; both insert directly opposite flexor carpi radialis
Extensor digitorum Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) Middle and distal phalanges of fingers 2-5 Extends fingers Forearm (posterior, superficial) Pop out during wrist/finger extension
Extensor digiti minimi Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) Middle and distal phalanges of little finger (5) Extension of all joints of pinky Forearm (posterior, superficial)
Extensor carpi ulnaris Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) Base of 5th metacarpal Wrist extension; ulnar deviation Forearm (posterior, superficial) Inserts directly opposite flexor carpi ulnaris; distal tendon runs through groove between ulnar head and styloid
Supinator Lateral epicondyle of humerus; proximal posterolateral ulna Anterolateral proximal radius Supination Forearm (posterior, deep) Wraps around radius
Abductor pollicis longus Posterior radius and ulna, interosseous membrane Base of 1st metacarpal Abduction and extension of 1st CMC joint Forearm (posterior, deep) Forms anatomical snuffbox (lateral/radial), more superior
Extensor pollicis brevis Posterior radius, interosseous membrane Proximal phalanx of thumb (directly beneath abductor pollicis longus) Extension of 1st MCP joint Forearm (posterior, deep) Forms anatomical snuffbox (lateral/radial)
Extensor pollicis longus Posterior ulna, interosseous membrane Distal phalanx of thumb Thumb extension Forearm (posterior, deep) Forms anatomical snuffbox (medial/ulnar)
Extensor indicis Posterior ulna, interosseous membrane Extensor expansion of "index" finger (connective tissue to all 3 phalanges) Extension of joint of index finger Forearm (posterior, deep)
Biceps brachii Scapula Radial tuberosity Shoulder flexion; elbow flexion; radioulnar supination Elbow (anterior) Most powerful supinator; no attachment at humerus
Brachilais Distal anterior humerus (coracobrachialis insertion) Ulnar tuberosity Elbow flexion Elbow (anterior) Immediately beneath biceps brachii; most powerful elbow flexor (biomechanical advantage)
Brachioradialis Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus (proximal 2/3) Radial styloid (long tendon) Elbow flexion Elbow (anterior) Palpate during resisted flexion; no significant action at elbow; stabilize elbow during rapid midrange flexion
Created by: ktpognc