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Chapter 7

Muscular System

What is the primary function of the muscular system? To move the skeleton
What are the other functions of the muscular system Provides mobility, movement, and heat
The skeletal system includes the skeletal muscles, but not the __________ or __________ muscle. The cardiac and smooth muscle
What are muscle cells specialized for? Contraction
What happens to a muscle when it contracts? It shortens
Each muscle is made up of thousands of individual ___________ Muscle cells (muscle fibers)
Tendons anchor muscle to __________ and other muscles. Bone
A flat sheet like tendon. Aponeurosis
What are tendons made of? Fibrous connective tissue.
This is where the muscle orginates. Orgin.
This is the opposite end of the orgin across a joint from the origin usually. Insertion.
What is the primary muscle that brings out the desired movement? Protagonist.
Which muscle does the opposite of the desired movement? Antagonist.
What muscles bring about the desired movement? Synergist.
The lobes that initiate the signal to the muscle in the premotor and motor areas of the cortex are the? Frontal lobes.
What coordinates the movements of a muscle in a very specific way> Cerebellum.
What lobe is the sensation of muscle sense sensed? The parietal lobe for conscious input.
What is muscle tone? A slight contraction of muscle that is present most of the time?
This changes with position? Muscle tone.
Heat production from normal muscle metabolism is called? Thermogenesis.
Heat production from normal muscle metabolism is due to? Chemical reactions and friction increased with activity.
Muscle sense is also known as? Proprioception.
Proprioception (muscle sense)is the awareness of the ________ and _________ . Muscles and joints.
Detects changes in the length of muscles? Proprioception.
What is the primary energy source for muscle contraction? ATP that is already present and short lasting.
What is the secondary energy source for muscle contraction? Creatine phosphate.
Creatine and phosphate break down to release what? Energy.
When creatine and phosphate break down and release energy it is to make more? ATP.
Most creatine is converted back to creatine phosphate but some of it is converted to? Creatinine?
What is creatinine? Nitrogenous waste product.
What is the most abundant energy source in the body? Glycogen.
What is glycogen? Chains of glucose molecules.
Glycogen gets broken down into______________ which goes through cellular respiration. Glucose.
What is cellular respiration? A process in which the energy of nutrients is released in the form of ATP (heat).
Glucose + oxygen + carbon dioxide + water + ATP + heat is? Cellular respiration.
What are two sources of Oxygen in the body? Hemoglobin and Myoglobin.
What carries oxygen in the blood and contains iron which binds with oxygen? Hemoglobin.
What carries oyxgen in the muscle and contains iron which binds to oxygen and makes the muscle red? Myoglobin.
What carries oxygen in the blood? Hemoglobin.
What carries oxygen in the muscle? Myoglobin.
When the need for oxygen is greater than the supply this is called? Oxygen debt.
What is Hypoxia? A deficiency of oxygen.
What is glucose converted to in an anaerobic respiration? Lactid acid.
In the liver lactid acid is converted to? Pyruvic acid.
Breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid is called? Recovery oxygen uptake.
What is a muscle figer? Microscopic structure.
A motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber is called? Neuromuscular junction.
Each muscle fiber has one? Neuromuscular junction.
What is the axon terminal? The enlarged tip of the motor neuron.
The axon terminal contains sacs of what neurotransmitter? ACh (acetylcholine)
What is the cell membrane of the muscle fiber called? Sarcolemma.
The sarcolemma contains ______________ sites for ACh. Receptor.
The sarcolemma contains cholinesterase that _____________ ACh. Deactivates.
What is the synapse? The small space between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sacrolemma.
The synapse may also be referred to as the ____________________. Synaptic cleft.
Within the muscle fibers there are thousands of individual contracting units called ______________ . Sarcomeres.
A group of sarcomeres arranged end to end in cylinders are called ______________ . Myofibrils.
What is actin? A thick filament with contractile proteins that interact with myosin.
What is myosin? A thin filament with thicker contractile proteins.
The protein backbone that anchors actin filaments is called the ____________ . Z line.
The Z line ___________ the end boundaries of the sarcomere. Forms.
The protein that anchors myosin to the Z line is called ___________ . Titin.
What two inhibitory proteins prevent contraction when relaxed? Tropin and tropomyosin.
Surrounding the sarcomeres is the ___________ . Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the _____________ of the muscle cell. ER (endoplasmic reticulum).
The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores ___________ ions. Calcium.
Calcium ions are essential for the ___________ . Contraction process.
Contraction begins when a ____________ causes the release of ACh. Nerve impulse.
ACh is released from the _____________. Axon terminal.
ACh causes an ____________ impulse in the sarcolemma. Electrical.
The electrical impulse in the sarcolemma causes ___________ filaments to pull against ___________ filaments. 1. actin 2. myosin
what is a sliding filament mechanism? The sequence of events that occurs within the sarcomeres when a muscle fiber contracts.
When a muscle fiber is relaxed the sarcolemma is ______________. Polarized.
During polarization the outside of the sarcolemma has a ____________ charge. Positive.
During polarization the inside of the sarcolemma has _____________ charge. Negative.
During polarization there is more ____________ outside the sarcolemma. Na+ (sodium)
During polarization there is more ____________ inside the sarcolemma. K+ (potassium)
The __________ is set up by the sodium and potassium pump. Gradient.
The sodium and potassium pumps are both ________________. Active transport mechanisms.
Active transport mechanisms require ___________. ATP (energy)
During depolarization of the sarcolemma the ACh bonds to _____________. ACh receptors.
When ACh bonds to the ACh receptors this causes the sarcolemma to become more ___________ to Na+ (sodium). Permeable.
When Na+ rushes into the cell it _____________ it. Depolarizes.
When the cell is depolarized it causes a _________ of charges. Reversal.
What is depolarization? A reversal of charges within a cell.
What are T tubules? Channels that carry the action potential to the inner parts of the cell.
What is repolarization? The resetting of the action potential following depolarization.
What is flexion? Reducing the angle of a joint.
What is extension? Increasing the angle of a joint.
What is inversion? Tilting the foot/ankle medially (inward).
What is eversion? Tilting the foot/ankle laterally (outward).
What is supenation? Rotating the palm up.
What is pronation? Rotating the palm down.
What is lateral flexion? (R&L) side bending.
What is rotation? (R,L, internal, external) Rotating around a joint.
What is circumduction? Moving in a circular motion without rotation.
What is abduction? To bring a part away from the mid-line.
What is adduction? To bring a part toward the mid-line.
What is retraction? To bring a part toward the mid-line or posteriorly.
What is protraction? To bring a part away from the mid-line or anteriorly.
What is translation? A,P,R,L
What is dorsiflexion? The decreasing angle of the ankle joint.
What is plantarflexion? The increasing angle of the ankle joint.
The calf muscle is made up of __________ muscles. Three.
The three muscles in the calf muscle are the _________, __________, and the _____________. Gastrocnemeus, soleus, plantaris.
The rotator cuff consists of the four muscles _________, __________,__________, and the __________. Supraspinatous, infraspinatous, subscapularis, teres minor.
The glutes constist of three muscles called the ___________, _____________, ______________. Glutes maximus, glutes minimus, glutes medius.
Name the four abdominal muscles. External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis.
What does the word pollicis mean? Thumb.
Name four organ systems that are essential for the proper functioning of the muscular system. Nervous system, respiratory system, circulatory system, skeletal system.
Name the organ system responsible for carrying carbon dioxide away from contracting muscles. The circulatory system.
Name the organ system responsible for transmitting nerve impulses for the contraction of muscles. The nervous system.
The organ system that is moved by muscles is the __________ system. Skeletal.
The organ system that ensures adequate oxygen intake for muscles is the ___________ system. Respiratory.
Muscles are attatched to bones by __________. Tendons.
Tendons are made up of ___________ tissue. Fibrous connective.
The fibers of a tendon merge with the fascia of a muscle and the ___________ of a bone. Periosteum.
The more stationary attachment of a muscle to a bone is called the _________. Orgin.
The more movable attachment of muscle to bone is called the __________. Insertion.
Muscles with oppisite functions are called what? Antagonist.
Muscles with the same or similar functions are called what? Synergistic.
What is the specific action of a muscle when it contracts? To pull a bone.
Muscles that move the lower leg must cross what joint? The knee joint.
Muscles that move the forearm must cross what joint? The elbow joint.
The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles is called ____________. Muscle tone.
Muscle tones depend on _____________. Nerve impulses.
Exercise that involves contraction with movement is called _____________. Isotonic.
Exercise that involves contraction without movement is called _____________. Isometric.
Having a sense of where our muscles are is called ____________. Muscle sense.
What are stretch receptors? Sensory receptors in the muscle.
Information from stretch receptors is essential for _____________. Muscle sense.
The contraction of skeletal muscles is initiated by the _____________ lobes of the cerebrum. Frontal.
What part of the brain coordinates the actions of skeletal muscles? The cerebellum.
Conscious muscle sense is a function of the ___________ lobes of the cerebrum. Parietal.
The integration of unconscious muscle sense is a function of the _____________. Cerebellum.
What is the direct energy source for muscle contraction? ATP.
What are two indirect energy sources for muscle contraction? Creatine phosphate, glycogen.
In cell respiration, the _________________ produced is a waste product. Carbon dioxode.
The waste product creatine comes from creatine phospate, and is excreted by the _____________. Kidneys.
In cell respiration, the ____________ produced is used for muscle contraction. ATP
In cell respiration, the ___________ produced contributes to body temperature. Heat.
In muscles, oxygen is stored by ____________. Myoglobin.
The iron-containing protein in muscles is myoglobin, and its function is to _____________. Store oxygen.
Lactic acid is produced by muscles that lack ____________. Oxygen.
The term oxygen debt refers to a lack of oxygen during the process of ______________. Cell respiration.
The axon terminal is the end of the _______________. Motor neuron.
The space in the neuromuscular junction is called the _____________. Synapse.
The sarcolemma is the membrane of the ______________. Muscle fiber.
Acetylcholine is contained within the _____________. Axon terminal.
Cholinesterase is contained within the ____________. Sarcolemma.
In a neuromuscular junction, the impulse is transmitted from the motor neuron by _____________ to the muscle fiber. Acetylcholine.
In the neuromuscular junction acetylcholine is inactivated by ________________. Cholinesterase.
Within a fiber muscle, the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains ______________. Calcium ions.
Within a sarcomere, the contracting proteins are ______________ and ____________. Myosin, actin.
During exercise, there is more blood within muscles because of _______________ within the muscles. Vasodialation.
During exercise more blood will be circulated to muscles because of increased ____________. Heartrate.
During exercise. excess heat is given off as ___________ icncreases. Sweating.
The muscels around the eye that closes the eye is the ___________. Orbicularis oculi.
The muscles around the mouth that puckers the lips is the ______________. Orbicularis oris.
The muscle attached to the mandible that raises the lower jaw is the _____________. Masseter.
The muscle on the shoulder that abducts the arm is the ____________. Deltoid.
The muscle on the front of the arm that flexes the forearm is the __________. Biceps brachii.
The muscle on the back of the arm that extends the forearm is the ______________. Triceps brachii.
The muscle on the upper back that raises or lowers the shoulder is the ____________. Trapezius.
The muscle on the chest that flexes and adducts the arm is the ______________. Pectoralis major.
The muscle on the back of the trunk that extends and adducts the arm is the ____________. Latissimus dorsi; teres major.
The muscle on the ventral side of the trunk that flexes the vertebral column is the ____________. Rectus abdominus.
The muscle on the buttock that extends the thigh is the ____________. Gluteus maximus.
The muscle in the inguinal area that flexes the thigh is the _____________. Iliopsoas.
The muscle on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh is the _____________. Quadriceps femoris.
The muscle group on the back of the thigh that extends the thigh is the ______________. Hamstring group.
The muscle on the lateral side of the hip that abducts the thigh is the ___________. Gluteus medius.
The muscle on the front of the thigh that flexes the thigh and the lower leg is the _____________. Sartorius.
The muscle group on the medial side of the thigh that adducts the thigh is the __________. Adductor group.
The muscle on the front of the lower leg that dorsiflexes the foot is the _____________. Tibialis anterior.
The muscle on the back of the lower leg that plantar flexes the foot is the ______________. Gastrocnemius; soleus
A synergist to the gastrocnemius is the ____________. Soleus.
An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the ________. Tibialis anterior.
Created by: laceychapman



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