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Nervous System Dis

Nervous System diseases

a progressive degenerative disease of the brain of unknown etiology, with atrophy of the cerebral cortex. symptoms are memory loss, personality changes, and dementia. more so in women than men Alzheimer disease
a congenital deformity that occurs when portions of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum protrude into the spinal canal Arnold-Chiari malformation
a tumer composed of neuroglial cells. most common type of brain tumor. also found throughout CNS. different classifications/grades of these tumors astrocytoma
a function disorder of cranial nerve VII resulting in paralysis of one side of the facial muscles and distortion of taste. usually due to a lesion on the nerve Bell palsy
a mood/personality disorder where both depressive and excited periods occur. usually begins with depression, and at least 1 time during illness there is an elated period bipolar disorder
a disorder caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel; defined by pain & burning/tingling paresthesias in fingers/hand, sometimes radiating up arm carpal tunnel syndrome
a broad term that describes a number of motor disorders in young children resulting from brain damage, often in utero or during birth. symptoms include hemiplegia, seizures, ataxia cerebral palsy
often used synonymously with a stroke. nonspecific term for ischemic (cutting off blood supply) or hemorrhagic (bleeding) lesions that affect the brain cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
a mood disorder defined by depressed feelings (sad, feeling down) with a loss of interest or pleasure from usual activities. persists for 2 or more years. differs from depression. lasts longer and not as severe dysthymia
inflammation of the brain encephalitis
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord encephalomyelitis
any degenerative disease of the brain encephalopathy
a recurrent paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function defined by sudden breif attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity, sensory phenomena, or inappropriate behavior. 1 episode is called seizure epilepsy
a tumor composed of tissue which represents neuroglia. the term is sometimes used to describe any tumor of the brain or spinal cord glioma
an acute usually rapidly progressive form of inflammatory polyneuropathy defined by muscle weakness and mild sensory loss Guillain-Barre syndrome
a herniated, ruptured, or prolapsed intevertebral disc. spinal vertebrae are separated by cartilage discs consisting of an outer anulus fobrosus and an inner nucleus pulposus my herniated nucleus pulposus
a condition marked by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, usually secondary to obstruction in the pathways for cerebrospinal fluid, with a subsequent accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull hydrocephalus
a motor neuron disease of unkown cause defined by muscular weakness and atrophy, cramps, visible fasciculations, spasticity, etc. more common in men than women Lou Gehrig disease
another name for Lou Gehrig disease. also defined by hyperactive reflexes, dysarthria and dysphagia. 50% of patients die within 3 years; 20% live 5 years, 10% live 10 years amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
inflammation of the meninges meningitis
a hernia protrusion of the meninges through a bony defect meningocele
a disease in which there are foci of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system, sometimes extending into the gray matter. symptoms of these lesions: weakness, incoordination, paresthesias, etc. multiple sclerosis
the repeated fabrication of illness, usually acute, dramatic, and very convincing, by a person who wanders from hospital to hospital for treatment. patients are often able to mimic serious disorders with great skill Muchausen syndrome
the affected person uses a child as the patient, falsifying history and even injuring the child or using drugs, adding blood or bacterial components to urine, etc. Munchausen by proxy
a disease defined by episodic muscle weakness, primarily in muscles innervated by the cranial nerves myasthenia gravis
a hernia protrusion of the spinal cord and its meninges through a defect in the verbral canal myelomeningocele
recurrent, uncontrollable, brief episodes of sleep. also associated with sudden loss of muscle tone, sleep paralysis, or hypnogogic hallucinations narcolepsy
a familial condition defined by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin with the formation of multiple soft tumors distributed over the entire body neurofibromatosis
paralysis of the le gs and lower part of the body paraplegia
conscientious and have high aspirations but tend to be perfectionists and cannot gain satisfaction from their achievements. they are reliable, dependable, orderly, and methodical, but they are also completely inflexible and cannot adapt to change obsessive-compulsive
project their own conflicts and hostilities onto others. markedly sensitive in relationships. tend to find hostile intentions behind trivial and even kindly acts by others, which leads to agressive feelings/behavior. feel superior/belittle others paranoid
helplessness, clinging dependency, procrastination. passivity is designed to gain attention, to avoid responsibility, to control others. behavior is often obstinacy, inefficiency, sullenness, often disguised under apparent compliance. provoke arguments passive-agressive
withdrawn, solitary, introverted, emotionally cold, distant. absorbed in their own thoughts and feelings. greatly fear intimacy of any kind with others. tend to daydream and prefer speculation to action. fantasy is a common coping mechanism schizoid
neurotic disorder. occurs following exposure to overwhelming environmental stress (very common in war veterans). symptoms include consistently reliving experience, numb emotional responsiveness, general dysphoria post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a mental disorder defined by gross impairment of reality; includes delusions, hallucinations, markedly incoherent speech, disorganized/agitated behavior. also used generally when mental impairment interferes with ability to deal with every day life psychosis
paralysis of all four limbs quadriplegia
a mental disorder that is defined by both schizophrenia and mood disturbances schizoaffective
group of mental disorders that are chronic, impair function, defined by psychotic symptoms involving impairment of thought, perception, feelings, behavior. schizophrenia
six specific criteria that should be present for a diagnosis: certain psychotic symptoms/delusions, deterioration from previous level of functioning, continuous signs for at least 6 months, onset before age 45, etc. schizophrenia
A slowly progressive and degenerative central nervous system disorder with four characteristic feature: slowness/poverty of movement, muscular rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability Parkinson disease
any traumatic, toxic, inflammatory, or degenerative changes in the peripheral nerves. Results in sensory loss, muscle weakness/atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, etc. peripheral neuropathy
these are disordered patterns of behavior defined by relatively fixed, inflexible, and stylistic reactions to stress. rigid/not adaptive. damage social, interpersonal, and work relationships. personality disorders
also called psychopathic or sociopathic personality. people with these disorders act out their conflicts and ignore normal rules of social behavior. impulsive, irresponsible, amoral, etc. cannot form relationships, use charm to get their way antisocial
these people are extremely sensitive to rejection, and they fear begining relationships but have a strong desire for affection and acceptance. appear shy/timid. distressed by inability to relate to others avoidant
people with this disorder are unstable in many areas, including self image, mood, behavior, relationships. defined by frequent mood shifts, impulsive, uncontrolled intense anger. extremists, never neutral borderline
these people fluctuate in their moods between high spirits/gloom and pessimism. lasts for weeks or longer. mood changes are rhythmic/predictable. can be set off by trivial causes or no external causes at all cyclothymic
surrender responsibility for their lives to others. allow needs of those they are dependent on to take precedence over their own needs. lack self-confidence and initiative. do not like to be alone for more than brief periods of time dependent
people suffering from this disorder seem very egocentric. winning the esteem and admiration of others is important to them. attention-seeking/theatrical behavior. behavior is inconsistent. act according to what puts them in a favorable light histrionic (hysterical)
marked by exaggerated sense of self importance and fantasies of unlimited success. people suffering also tend to be preoccupied with envy. constantly seek attention, exploit others, overly sensitive to failure/criticism. multiple somatic complaints narcissistic
defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal column spina bifida
if the cord and meninges protrue through the defect, it is called spina bifida cystica
if the cord and meninges do not protrude through, it is called spina bifida occulta
forwards displacement of one vertebra over another. the most common vertebrae affected are the 5th lumbar (over the sacrum) and the 4th lumbar (over the 5th lumbar) spondylolisthesis
immobility and consolidation of a vertebral joint, or a general term for degenerative changes of a vertebral joint due to osteoarthritis spondylosis
a collection of pus between the dure and the arachnoid membranes. most often a complication of sinus infection. can also be due to ear infection, cranial trauma or surgery, bacteremia subdural empyema
slowly progressive syndrome. fluid-filled neuroglial cavities form within spinal cord. may extend up into the medulla oblangata or down into the thoracic region. symptoms include neurological deficits. syringomyelia
a fluid-filled neuroglial cavity. it also means a tube, pipe, or fistula syrinx
autosomal multiple tic disorder. begins in childhood with simple facial/vocal tics. progresses to multiple, complex jerking movements that can occur in any part of body. condition may worse in teens. may grunt, shout involuntarily. more common in males Tourette syndrome
neurologic abnormalities that occur suddenly lasting only minutes usually, caused by dysfunction in the arterial distribution to the brain. often occur as a precursor to a stroke transient ischemic attack (TIA)
disorder of trigeminal (5th) cranial nerve which causes bouts of severe pain lasting seconds to minutes in the distribution of 1 or more of the nerve's sensory divisions, but most commonly in mandibular and/or maxillary portion trigeminal neuralgia
series of changes that take place in a severed peripheral nerve fiber. affects a portion of the neuron, which swells, becomes granular, and breaks up into irregular fragments which eventually disappear. Wallerian degeneration
Created by: medicalstudent11