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A&P2 Respiratory Sys

Componenets of the Repiratory System Nose, pharynx (throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
2 Structural Parts of the Respiratory System 1. Upper Respiratory System-nose, phayrnx & associated structures 2.Lower repiratory System-larynx, trachea, bronchi & lungs
2 Functional Parts of the Respiratory System 1. Conducting Zone 2. Respiratory Zone
Functional Part 1 - Conducting Zone just takes the air in (cavities & tubes that filter, warm and moisten tubes)
Functional Part 2 - Respiratory Zone gas exchange tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
The Nose (External) Boney framework - frontal bone, nasal bones, maxilla Cartilaginous Framework- alar cartilage, septal & nasal cartilage
The Nose (internal) Extends from external nose to internal nares. Contains ducts from paranasal sinuses & nasolacrimal apparatus. Nasal septum divides internal nose-L & R. Nasal conchae=shelves to increase surface area (filter,warm,moisten). Nasal meatus=passage by conchae.
3 Nose Functions 1.Filter, warm and mositen air 2. Olfaction 3. Modify Speech through Resonation
Nose Function - Warm, Moisten, Filter Air Happens in nasal conchae. Blood in capillaries warm air. Mucus secreted by goblet cells of lining moistens air and traps dust.
Nose Function - Olfaction Specialized receptors for smell line superior nasal conchae.
Nose Function - Speech Modification paranasal sinuses serve as resonating centers for sounds
Pharynx Extends from internal nares to distal voice box
3 Regions of Pharynx 1. nasopharynx 2. oropharynx 3.laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx internal nares to soft palate. Containes pharyngeal tonsil and opening of eustachian tube. Passageway for air
Oropharynx soft palate to hyoid bone. Contains paletine and lingual tonsils. Common passageway for air and food
Laryngopharynx Hyoid bone to cricoid cartilage. Opens to esophagus and trachea. Passage of air and food.
Larynx "Voice Box". connects the pharynx to trachea. The primary site of voice production. Normally receives only air - epiglottis blocks food and liquid from entering trachea. Lies anterior to esophagus.
Anatomy of Larynx Composed of 9 pieces of carilage. 3 single and 3 paired
3 single Carilages of Larynx Epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid. The epiglottis blocks food/liquid from entering trachea. Thyroid is the "adams apple"
3 paired carilages of larynx Arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate. Arytenoid are attached to vocal folds and muscles which contract to produce sounds
Voice production Contraction of posterior cricoarytenoid muscles pulls vocal folds apart. Contraction of lateral cricoarytenoid muscles pulls vocal folds together. pitch controled by tension in folds.
Trachea "windpipe". Anterior to esophagus-extends from larynx to T5 4 layers- mucosea, submucosa, cartilage, adventitia. Composed of 16-30c shaped rings-open part faces esophagus.
Branching of Bronchial Tree Trachea - primaray bronchi (plates of cartilage replace rings) - secondary bronchi- tertiary bronchi - bronchioles (smooth muschle replaces cartilage in distal bronchids) - terminal bronchioles
Anatomy of the Lungs Lungs almost fill thorax. L lung smaller due to cardiac notch. Base lies against diaphragm. Apex=superior tip. Pleura=serous membrane covering lungs-2layers-visceral pluera (covers lung), parietal pleura (lines thoracic cavity). Pleura space btwn layer
Anatomy Lungs Continued Rlung has 3 lobes, Llung has 2. each lobe supplied by sec bronchi (bronchopulmonary segment)-tertiary bronchi-terminal bronchi-resp bronchids, alveolar ducts, alveoli
Alveoli Site of exchange of O2 and CO2. Exchange of gases occurse across respiratoy membrane. Respiratory mamembrane has 4 layers - alveolare wall (type1&2 alveolar cells), epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, capillary endothelium.
Blood Supply to Lungs Pulmonary areteries carry deoxygeneated blood. Localized hypoxia causes vasocon which diverts blood from poorly ventilated to well ventilated ares of the lungs (Ventilation Perfusion Coupling). Pulmo veins carry oxygenated blood to heart.
Pulmonary Ventilation Repiration=process of gas exchange in the body. 3 steps - 1. pulmonary ventilation 2. External Respiration 3. Internal Respiration
Step 1 Pulmonary Ventilation breathing - inhaltion/exhaltion. diaphragm descending
Step 2 External Respiration gas exchange betwn alveoli and blood
Step 3 Internal Respiration gas exchange btwn tissues and blood. Blood->tissues (ATP)
Inhaltion For inhaltion to occur the lungs must expand. This increases the volume in the lungs and decrease pressure with alveoli. Diaphragm & external intercostals contract. Air pressure diff btwn alveoli & atmosphere drive air flow.
Pressure changes in Ventilation air moves into th elungs when alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure (760mmHg). According to Boyles law, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the container - therefore when lungs expand, alveolar pressure decreases
Exhalation occurs when the pressure in the alveoli is greater than the atmospheric pressure (760mmHg @ sea level). occurs when diaphragm & external intercostals relax. This decreases volue of lungs & increase pressure of gas in alveoli (boyles law)
Compliance of the lungs refers to the mount of effort trquired to strech the lungs and chest wall (normally high).
Decrease in lung compliance may occur in certain disease condtions. -excess scar tissue - ex. tuberculosis -pulmonary adema - ex. heart disease -destruction of elastic fibers- ex. emphysema
Airway Resistance large airways have less resistance to airflow. Any condition that narrows or obstucts airways increases resistance. Ex- asthma. Ex - COPD - from chronic bronchitis or emphysema
Breathing Patterns Eupnea=normal quiet breathing. Consists of shallow or deep breathing or a combination. Shallow caused by contraction of external intercostals. Deep caused by contraction of descending of diaphragm
Lung Capacities and Volumes Minute Volume=total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute. MV=Resp rate x tidal volume -normal RR= 12 breaths per min -normal TV= 500ml=vol of 1 breath -normal MV= 12x500 = 6000ml=6L per minute *Spirometer=device used to measure volumes
Alveolar Ventilation Rate only about 70% of inspired air reaches the respiratory zpne. The rest remains n the conducting airways called anatomic dead space. AVR=BPM x (TV-anatomic dead space) *bpm - breaths per minute
Lung Capacities Combinations of lung volumes. Total lung capacity=vital capacity + residual volume. - Vital capacity= -IRV+TV+ERV -IRV= vital capacity-(ERV+TV) RV is constant -usually 1200ml in males
Exchange of O2 & CO2 Exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary blood occurs by passive diffusion. - Daltons Law
Daltons Law Atmospheric Pressure Pressure=760mmHg -AN2+PO2+PH2O+PCO2 (pressure of other gases -Compared with inhaled air, alveolar air has less O2 and more CO2. -each gas diffues higher -> lower pressure
Henry's Law The Quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquied is proportional to the partial pressure and its solubilty Compared to O2, more CO2 is dissolved in blood plasma bc its solubilty is higher
External Repiration The diffusion of o2 from air into blood in pulmonary capillaries; and the diffusion of CO2 in the opposite direction -Alveolar air PO2=105 mmHG; PCO2=40mmHg -Deoxygentated blood: PO2=40mmHg; PCO2=45mmHg
Internal Respiration Occurs in tissues throughout the body. Exchange of O2 and CO2 occurs btwn systemic capillaries and tissue cells. -oxygenated blood PO2=100mmHg;PCO2=40mmHg -Tissues: PO2=40mmHg; PCO2=45mmHg
4 Factors effecting Rate of gas exchange 1. Partial presure differences of gases 2. Surface area for gas exchange 3.Diffusion distance 4. Moleculare Weight and Solubility
Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide O2 does not easily dissolve in H2O. 1.5% disolve in plasma; 98.5% bind to hemoglobin. -98.5% trapped in RBS -only the dissolved o2 can diffuse into tissues
Control of Repiration Respiratory Center - located in medulla an pons of brain stem. 3 ares based on funtion - 1. medullary rhytmicity center (medulla oblongata -2. pneumotaxic area (pons) -3. apneustic area (pons)
Inspiratory Area of Medulla sends nerve impulses to diaphragm and external intecostals causing muscle contraction (thorax expands). After 2 seconds nerve impulses cease. Relaxation is a passive procces - no impulses for 3sec. Controls basic rhthym of quiet respiration
Expiratory are of Medulla Active only during forceful breathing. Impulses sent to internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Decreases size of thorax. Causes forceful exhalation. inspiratory cener activates expiratory center during forceful exhalation
Pneumotaxic ARea located in upper pons. Inhibits inspiratory area. shortens duratio of inhaltion. Breathing is more rapid
Apneustic area located in lower pons. Stimulates inspiratory area cases long deep inhalation. * when active pneumotaxic center overrides apneustic center
5 Regualtions of the Repiratory Center 1. Cortical influencs 2. Chemoreceptor influences 3. Proprioceptor Influences 4. Inhaltion Reflex (Hering Bruer) 5. Other influences on Repiration
Corical Influences (regulation of repiratory center) allows voluntary control of breathing. eg. holding breath
Chemoreceptor Influence (regulation of respiratory center) -central chemoreceptors respond to changes in PO2 or H+, located near medulla -peripheral chemoreptors - respond to changes in PO2, H+, or PCO2. Located in aortic bodies and carotid bodies (close to baroreceptors).
Proprioceptor influences (regulation of respiratory center) monitor movement of joints. Stimulate inspiratory are of medulla oblongata
Inhalation Reflex (Hering Breuer) (regulation of respiratory center) Stretch receptors in walls of bronchi. When streched exhaltion begins.
Other Influences on Respiration anxiety, fever, pain, drop in blood pressure, stretching anal sphincter ---increase respiration
Created by: cassi8619



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