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anatomy test #2

Heart, veins

how do Cardiac mm contraction: non-authorythmic cells work? Depol authorythmic cells, spreads to non-autorythmic & opens
what is involved in Circulation? Bloodflow-volume of BF through vessel at any given time BP-Force per unit area excerpted on a vessel wall. Resistance- opposition to BF
what is Mid-to-late diastole? -Ventricular Filling- relaxed Atrial contraction- area of increased pressure
what is Cardiomyopathy? Change in heart wall; dialated cardiomyopathy- stretches out, bldy sitting around
Systemic BP: Capillaries. Pressure in capillaries? Why is it necessary to keep BP low in capillaries? -35(arteriole end)-15(venous end) -capillaries will burst and push nutrients out
Factors that affect resistance? -Bld viscosity -Bld vessel length -Bld vessel diameter
+ inotropic factor -calcium -digitalis -epinephrine -glucagon -thyroxine Increase contractility, increase of force of heart
ABC of heart health -Avoid tobacco -Be active -Choose good nutrition
Vascular shunt From arterial to venous
Other heart rate modifiers Chemicals-Hormones, Ions age gender exercise body temp.
Areas of few or no capillaries Cornea & lens Ligaments & tendons Epithelium Cartilage
Types of bld vessels Arteries Capillaries Veins
Anastomoses are poorly developed in? Kidnerys retina spleen
Calcium delivery initiates? Mm contaction in heart by Ca2+
Fenestrated found in? More permeable to? -Porous, small intestine, kidney, endocrine organs, some endothelial have fenestration -More permeable to fluid and solutes
Tunica Media Smooth mm allows for vasodialation and elastin
Coronary artery disease/ heart attack Most common Don't stretch/ tissues die off
Mitochondria create? 15x more in heart. Keeps it from stopping. Produces ATP
Arrythmias Abnormal HR
Arteries do what? Carry bld away from the heart
Capellaries have what tunic, and what strengthens it? -Tunica Intima -Pericytes- help support wall
Characteristics of capillaries Tunica intima only length-60,000 width-10 micrometers
Heart failure classification L & R sided heart failure Systolic heart failure-stretches out; contractility problems Diastolic heart failure-common in old women
Veins characteristics -3 tunics -thinner wall, large lumen than arteries, decrease resistance of bld flow
what does myocarditis do to the heart? Inflamation of the heart; viruses cause L ventricle to fail
Factors that affect EDV and ESV Preload Contractility Afterload
True Capillaries Exchange vessels
Vascular anastomosis parts developed best for it? Joints abdominal organs brain heart
Blood flow through capillaries slow and intermittent
Elastic arteries largest arteries in heart, closer to the heart, do not vasodialate or vasoconstrict
Capillaries job and position? B arteries and veins Only bld vessel type with diffusion of O2 and nutrients
Sinusoidal Bone marrow Leaky capillaries with large clefts and pores, large molecules and blood cells can pass through
Types of veins Venule Veins
Muscular arteris Futher away from heart Deliver bld to specific body organs- kidney gonads Thickest tunica media
3 types of capillares Continious Fenestrated Sinusoidal
Ventricular systole Isovolumetric contraction Ventricular ejection
FAulty heart valves Regurgitation and increase work load on heart stenosis
Extrinsice innervation of the heart Heart beats on its own, ANS can modify HR and force of contraction -Sympathetic-Neurotransmitter Norapanephrin -Parasympathetic-Neurotransmitter acetacholamine
Cardiac mm contraction- autorythmic cells K+ channels close at repol Na+ channels spontaneously open When depol to threshold (-40mv) ca2+ channels open, depols cell further
Venous adaptation for overcoming gravity large lumens One-way valves Resperatiory "pump" Skeletal "pump" constriction of tunica media
Intercalated disks Lets cells know it is time to contract, contraction travels from cell to cell
The cardiac cycle systole- time contraction of ventricles diastole- time relaxation of ventricles
Tunics of bld vessel walls? Tunica intima, media and externa
Circulation formula BF=distance between two points over resistance
layers of the tunica intima? Endothelium Subendothelium
What affects cardiac output? Formula? SV=EDV-ESV
Veins do what? Carry bld to heart
Heart rate modifier:age fetus-140-160 newborn-100-160 under 10-70-120 over 10-60-100
Hypertension Afterload problem, increase force on L ventricle, diastole heart failure
Varicose veins: What happens when valves malfunction? Aging sex genetics obesity standing or sitting still for long periods of time
Tunica Externa Collagen-stronger than steel Vasa Vasorum-penetrate through bld vessels to sustain tissue
Common causes of heart failure- Arrythmias Congenital heart failure Cardiomyopathy Faulty heart valves Heart attack Hypertension Myocarditis
Means of stimulation, generates signal how? Autorythmic spontaneously generate signal
Heart failure signs and symptoms Fatigue-lack of O2 Fast HR Leg swelling SOB stretching/ thickening of myocardium
What affects CO? Changes in HR -chemical, age, gender, exercise, body temp -tachycardia and bradycardia
types of arteries? Muscular, elastic, arterioles
Arterioles feed into what? Smallest arteries, feed into walls to supply nutrients
HR modifiers-Chemicals Hormones-Thyroxine, epinephrine Ions-Calcium, Potassium
CO formula? amt of bld through heart in? CO=HRxSV, amt of bld pumped through L vent in 1 min
Congenital heart defects common in? how does it affect heart? Increase in newborns, heart is overworked
Short-term mechanisms for regulating BP, 2 types of hormones? Regulate BP by altering R to BF -Norepinephrine and epinephrine- released in response to stress and nicotine, both cause vasoconstriction
Atrial natrueretic peptide releaseed in response to? cause bld volume to? ANP-produced by heart Relaxed by atrial myocytes in response to: atrial dystension, sympathetic stimulation of heart, increase Na+ lvls, angiotension 2, endothelium Cause bld volume to decrease
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) produced by? cause kidneys to? Produced by hypothalamus when bp is low cause kidneys to conserve H2O
Organ vs. Motor Unit singal what Intercalated disks signal every mm to contract
Systemic BP: do veins pulsate? Does not pulsate, lumen get large as pressure decreases
Angiotensin 2, kidneys release? Kidneys receive inadequate flow, they release renin Renin acts as an enzyme to make angiotensin 2 Angiotensin 2 causes increase in BP; release aldosterone & ADH
4 routs by which nutrients & resp gases cross capillary walls Lipid soluble substances diffuse through lipid bilayer H2O soluble pass through fluid-filled intercellular clefts fenestrations large molecules are actively transported by pinocytotic vesicles or cabeolae
Myogenic controls of autoregulation Vascular mm responds to stretch Keeps tissue perfusion fairly constant despite changes in systemic BP
Precapillary sphincter At base of true capillares So blood can move from arteries to veins, into capellaries
Preload Amt to which heart mm is stretched before contraction -Venous Return- bld returning to heart increase force of contraction increase VR=increase EDV=increase CO
Capillary Beds Microcirculation- flows of bld through a capillary bed Vascular shunt True capillaries Precapillary sphincters
Cardiac anitomical differences Intercalated disks Mitochondria Calcium delivery
Direct renal mechanism; independent or dependent of hormones? Independent of hormones Increase in bld volume or pressure lead to increase in kidney filtration(vice versa)
Afterload Force that needs to be generated in ventricle to open SL valves and eject bld into aorta - Hypertension- increase pressure, vent. has to work hard to contract increase ESV=increase AL= decrease CO
Continious brain skin and mm Blood brain barrier
What factors affect contractility? + and - inotropic factors
Differences in mechanism of contraction : cardiac means of stimulation organ vs. motor unit length of absolute refractory period
- inotropid factor Acidosis( excess H+) Ca2+ channel blockers Rising extracellular K+ levels decrease contractility, decrease force of heart
Anatomy of venule Multiple capalaries drop O2 bld here -smallest veins -endothelium with a few pericytes & maybe some smooth mm cells -porous
Indirect renal mechanism; kidneys release what? Renin- angiotension mechanism when arterial bld pressure decrease kidneys, release renin which produces angiotensin 2
Pathology of BP regulation: Hypotension: causes- Anaphylaxis Blood loss Cardiac problems Dehydration Endocrine problems Medications Postural(orthostatics) Pregnancy Septic shock
Hypertenstion; 3 categories of hypertension? prehypertension- 121-139/81-89 stage 1 hypertension140-159/90-99 stage 2 hypertension-160+/100+
Maintaining BP- 3 mechanisms of maintaing BP Short Term -CO -Resistance Long term -Bld volume
Regulating BP; how do they maintain BP? Neural controls; maintain BP by altering resistance to BF -Baroreceptrors-stretch receptors -Chemoreceptors-detect chemicals in bld
Baroreceptors; where are they located and what do they do? Respond to stretch in arteries caused by increased BP. cause vasodialation/restriction when stretched. Located in walls of: Carotid sinuses --CArotid sinus reflex aortic arch most large arteries in neck & thorax
Chemoreceptors respond to decrease in? increase in? when activated, causes? Respond to decrease in O2&bld ph, as well as increase in CO2 Increased CO Vasoconstriction Increased - decreased CO2 and increased O2
Early Diastole Isovolumetric relaxation Ventricular filling N-systolic volume- blood left over after contraction
Hypertenstion; Primary identifiable or unidentifiable? primary-unidentifiable cause, but involve diet obesity age diabetes mellitus heredity stress smoking
Hypertensition; Secondary identifiable of unidentifiable? Indentifiable, underlying conditions 10% have it, atherosclerosis, hyperthyroid
Tissue perfusion is necessary for? Bld flow to body tissues Necessary for delivery of O2& nutrients to cells Removal of waste from cells exchange of gas in lungs absorption of nutrients from GI tract Urine formation- needs lots of O2 to filter
Autoreglation is done by? Automatic adjustment of BF to each tissue in proportion to needs. Done by: metabolically- increase tissue perfussion Myogencially- autoregulation in smooth mm
Myo mm
gen origin
Metabolic controls of autoregulation decrease in O2 and nutrient levels increase in K+, H+, adenosine, lactic acid, prostaglandius increase in inflammatory chemicals
Created by: celdia
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