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Ch 25

Modernization the changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
Bloody Sunday massacre of peaceful protesters at Winters Square in St. Petersburg in 1905 that turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a wave of general indignation.
Dreyfus affair Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti-Semites against Dreyfus; because of this, the French government severed all ties between the state and church.
Duma Russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but with absolute veto power from the tsar.
Homestead Act result of the American Civil War that gave western land to settlers, reinforcing the concept of free labor in a market economy.
Janissary corps the sultan’s “slave army.”
Kulturkampf truggle for civilization, Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870.
October Manifesto the result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power.
People’s Budget proposed after the liberal party came to power in England in 1906 and vetoed by the lords, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare issues.
Red Shirts guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to liberate it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.
Reichstag the popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire after 1871.
Revisionism an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
Revolution of 1905 result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
Tanzimat regulations or orders.
Young Turks fervent patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908.
Zemstvo a new institution of local government in reformed Russia , whose members were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners.
Zionism movement toward Jewish political nationhood, started by Theodor Herzl.
Zollverein German customs union founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states.
Created by: mrskeithly