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Chapter 17 D

female reproductive system

female reproductive system Reproduction is the purpose,sustains pregnancy
coitis or copulation sexual intercourse
Climacteric menopause
external genitalia mons pubis, labia minora, vestibule, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice,bartholin’s glands, perineum known as vulva and pudendum
Mons pubis fatty tissue that covers and cushions the symphysis pubis
Labia majora 2 folds of skin containing fatty tissue covered with hair that are on either side of vaginal opening extends from mons pubis to perineum
Labia minora 2 thin folds of tissue from clitoris to perineum
Fourchette point where labia minora comes together
Vestibule oval shaped area between labia minora
Bartholins glands 2 small mucous secreting glands that lubricate vagina
Clitoris short elongated organ composed of erectile tissue
Hymen thin layer of elastic connective tissue membrane imperforate would completely cover vaginal opening
Perineum area between vaginal orifice and anus contains muscular and fibrous tissue and supports pelvic structures
Episiotomy incision made to enlarge vaginal opening for delivery
internal genitalia vagina,uterus,fallopian tubes,ovaries
vagina muscular tube that connects uterus with vulva between bladder and rectum part of birth canal expands during child birth female organ of sexual intercourse passageway for menstrual flow
uterus(womb) pear shaped hollow muscular shaped organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy and source of menstrual flow if no pregnancy has 3 portions
fundus small dome shaped portion of uterus that rises above area where fallopian tubes wnter uterus
body part of uterus that is the wider central part near the bladder
cervix part of uterus narrower neck like portion at lower end
wall of uterus has 3 layers
perimetrium outer serous membrane layer
myometrium middle muscular layer
endometrium inner layer highly vascular that builds up each month in anticipation of recieving fertilized egg shed if there is no pregnancy
internal cervical os 2 lowere segments of uterus strictures or openings that separate body of uterus from cervix
external cervical os at lower end of cervical canal open into vagina
fallopian tubes(uterine tubes ovi ducts) passage way for ova as they exit ovary to uterus where fertilization takes place
fimbriae fingerlike projections fringe like end of falopian tube
Ovaries female sex cells female gonads almond shaped and held in place by ligaments produce mature ova or eggs and release them at monthly intervals ovulation produce hormones for normal growth and development of female maintain pregnancy
Breasts(mammary glands) consist of glandular tissue with supporting fatty tissue nd fibrous connective tissue and are covered with skin accessory organs that produce milk to nourish the infant
nipple center of each breast consists of sensitive erectile tissue
areola darker pigmented area surrounding nipple
Montgomery's tubercules or glands small sebaceous glands active only during pregnancy and lactation p[roduce substance to keep nipple soft and prevent dryness and cracking during nursing
lactiferous ducts network of passageways or narrow tubular structures milk travels through
pelvimetry measurment of pelvis determines of head of fetus can pass through bony pelvis during delivery
pelvic ultrasound measurement of pelvis determined in early part of pregnancy
x-ray pelvimetry late in pregnancy or during labor for more precise measurements
puberty period of life at which the ability to reproduce and secondary sex characteristics begin to develop
menarche first menstrual period
menstrual cycle(female reproductive cycle) influenced by estrogen and progesterone regular occuring set of changes that occur in female body in preparation for pregnancy
menses menstrual flow lasts 3-5 days 24-35 days range current to following month
ovulation release of mature ovu,m feom ovary 14 days prior to menses
menstrual cycke phases day 1-5 menstrual phase 6-12 postmenstrual phase 13-14-ovulatory phase 15-28 premenstrual phase
menstrual phase menstrual phase occurs 1 day and lasts 3-5 days
postmenstrual phase(proliferative phase) intercal between menses and ovulation estrogen levels rise then several ova begin to mature in graafian follicles usually only 1 ovum reaches full maturity
Ovulatory phase graffian follicle ruptures and releases mature ovum into pelvic cavity ovum into fallopian tubes
premenstrual phase(secretory phase) between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow empty graffian follicle fills with yellow substance called lutein graffian follicle turns into corpus luteum
corpus luteum secretes high levels of estrogen and progesterone preparinig uterine lining to recieve fertilized ovum with no fertilization hormones decrease and it shrinks
premenstual syndrome drop in hormone levels creates group of symptoms including irritability, fluid retention, breast tenderness, feeling of depression
adnexa tissues or structures not next to or near each other
cervix part of uterus that protrudes into cavity of vagina neck of uterus
climacteric menopause
clitoris vaginal erectile tissue corresponding to male penis
corpus luteum yellowish mass that forms within ruptures ovarian follicle after ovulation containing high levels of prgesterone and some estrogen
cul de sac pouch between uterus and rectum within peritoneal cavity
diaphragm form of contraception
endometrium inner lining of uterus
estrogen female hormone female secondary sex characteristics
fallopian tubes tubes opening at 1 end into uterus and other end into peritoneal cavity over ovary
fertilization union of male sperm and female ovum
fourchette tense band of mucous membranes
gamete mature sperm or ovum
graafian follicles mature fully developed ovarian cyst containing ripe ovum
lumpectomy surgical removal of only tumor amd immediate adjacent breast tissue
meatus opening or tunnel
myometrum muscular layer of uterine wall
orifice entrance or outlet of body cavity
pregnancy perios of intrauterine development of fetus from conception through birth 40 weeks gestational period
progesterone changes that occur in endometrium in anticipation of fertilized ovum and development of maternal placenta
arche beginning
menorrhagia abnormally long or very heavy menstual periods
metrorrhagiauterine bleeding at times other that menstrual period
oligomenorrhea abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
olig/o few,little,scanty
abstinence no intercourse until marriage
oral contraceptives contain synthetic frorms of estrogen and progesterone taken by mouth
depo-provera injection injectable form of birth control every 12 weeks
intrauterine device(IUD) small plastic t dhaped object with strings attached to leg of T inserted into uterus through vagina and stays in uterus
patch patch that delivers homones continuously through skin into bold stream for 7 days
ring ring placed in vagina and slowly releases low doses of hormones once a month stays in for 3 weeks
barrier methods barriers between cervix and sperm jellies or creams condoms which are thin latex sheets diaphgrams-flexible circular rubber disks that are inserted through vagina and fit over cervix
tubal ligation surgically cutting or tying the fallopian tubes permanent birth control
minilaparotomy small incision into abdomen
micro-insert system alternative to tubal ligation that provides bilateral occlusion of fallopian tubes by inserting a soft flexible micro insert into each fallopian tube takes 3 months to work
vasectomy surgically cutting and tying vas deferens
carcinoma of breast malignant tumor of breast tissue most common type is ductal carcinoma that originates in the mammary ducts
mastectomy removal of just the breasts
modified radical mastectomy breast and lymph nodes in axilla(armpit) removed
radical mastectomy breast,chest muscles on affected side and lymph nodes in axilla are removed
reconstructive breast surgery implants and tissue transplanted form one part of body such as hips or thighs to breast
cervical carcinoma malignant tumor of the cervix abnormal papsmear and bleeding between menstrual periods and after sexual intercourse or menopause slow progressing
papanicolaou smear(pap smear) detects early changes in cervical tissue that could indicate cervical cancer obtaining scrapings from cervix and examining them under a microscope to detect abnormalities in the cervical tissue tissue biopsy would confirm the cancer
cervicitis acute or chronic inflammation of cervix vaginal discharge pelvic pain or pressure bleeding itcing,burning pap smear
cervical erosion leokorrhea- white or yellowish mucous discharge from vagina pap smear cryosurgery used
cystocele herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
endometrial carcinoma(adenocarcinoma of uterus) malignant tumor of lining of uterus during or after menopause abnormal uterine bleeding endometrial biopsy or dilation and curettage remove uterus fallopian tubes ovaries
dilation enlarge cervical opening
curettage scraping tissue cells from uterine lining for sampling
Total abdominal hysterectomy(TAH) complete hysterectomy removal of uterus,fallopian tubes,ovaries
endometriosis presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside endometrium(lining of uterus)
ectopic out of place
fibrocystic breast disease presence of single or multiple fluid filled cysts felt in the breasts benign but biopsy may be done
fibroid tumor benign fibrous tumor of uterus
leiomyoma benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus often mislabeled as fibroid tumors occur in premenopausal women
ovarian carcinoma malignant tumor of ovaries not usually detected early
ovarian cysts benign sacs(cysts) that form on or near the ovaries
pelvic inflammatory disease(salpingitis) inflammation of the fallopian tubes starts with cervical infection that spreads fever,chills,malaise, tender abdomen, back pain, foul smelling vaginal discharge,elevated white blood cell count diagnosis through specimen of uterine secretions cause of inf
stress incontinence urinary inability to hold urine when bladder is stressed by sneezing,coughing, laughing,lifting
vaginitis inflammation of vagina and vulva disturbance of normal flora or pH of vagina 3 common types are candidiasis, trichomoniasis,bacterial vaginosis
aspiration biopsy invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body such as the breast to withdraw a tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis
breast self examination woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for any changes that could be malignant
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope should be done if pap smear shows abnormal cells
dysplasia abnormal cells
cone biopsy(conization) surgical removal of cone shaped segment of cervix for diagnosis or treatment when there is lesion or abnormal tissue
endocervix inner lining of cervical canal
cryosurgery destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liquid nitrogen
culdocentesis surgical puncture through posterior wall of vagina into cul-de-sac to withdraw uses intraperitoneal fluid for examination culdoscope is used and needle is inserted to take fluid for examination
dilation and curettage(D&C) dilation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet
endometrial biopsy invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue with a small curet for examination
hysterosalpingography x-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting contrast material into those structures
laparoscopy process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope
laparoscope a thin walled flexible tube with a telescopic lens and light
loop electrosurgical excision procedure(LEEP) procedure used to remove abnormal cells from surface of cervix using thin wire loop that acts like a scalpel
mammography examining soft tissue of breast through x-ray to detect benign or malignant growths before they are felt
craniocaudal top to bottom
mediolateral side to side
papinicolaou (pap) smear diagnostic test for cervical canver microscopic examination of cells scraped from cervix also includes palpatation of of femal internal organs
ectocervix around cervix
posterior vaginal area near the cervix
Bethesda 2001 system method or reporting cervical endocervical and vaginal cytology specimens 2 categories- negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and epithilial cell abnormality
liquid based pap(LBP) process of collecting a tissue sample from the endocervix and exocervix with sampling device that is placed directly into liquid fixative instead of being placed on slide
pelvic ultrasound non-invasive procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
oscilloscope transforms electrical impulses into visual images
transvaginal ultrasound clearer image than pelvic ultrasound
pelvimetry process of measuring female pelvis manually or by x-ray to determine its adequacy for child bearing
x-ray pelvimetry x-ray that determines dimensions of pelvis of pregnant woman performed when there is doubt that head of fetus can safely pass through pelvis during labor
Created by: drw5