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Hazmat Technician

Hazmat Technician Study Guide

Acid, caustic Acid is a material with a PH < 7, a Caustic (Base) has a PH > 7 either may cause the pressure within a container to rise, particularly if they become contaminated.
Air reactivity Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air and the potential for container failure due to over-pressurization exists.
Biological agents and toxins Produce disease and are living microorganisms that can mutate and become more deadly.
Boiling Point Temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas state occurs. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
Catalyst Used to control the rate of a chemical reaction by either speeding it up or slowing it down. If used improperly, it can speed up a reaction and cause failure of a container that cannot withstand either the pressure of the heat build-up.
Chemical interactions Caused when two or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible. This may result in a build-up of heat that, in turn causes an increase in pressure and may be more harmful than the material the container was designed to withstand.
Chemical reaction Reactions are caused by both elements and compounds to make new substances with their own physical and chemical properties. Often observed by the evolution of a gas, color, precipitation and heat.
Chemical reactivity Describes a substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example: self-reaction, polymerization, or violent reaction.
Compound mixture Separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner.
Concentration The amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present.
Corrosivity Indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the material being tested. The ability of a material to destroy a material, which it comes in contact with.
Critical temperature and pressure Relates to the process of liquefying gases and is the minimum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. A gas cannot be liquefied above its critical temperature. Relates to the process of liquefying gases.
Dose The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period.
Dose Rate The radiation dose delivered per unit of time (e.g., mrem/hour)
Endothermic/Exothermic Heat absorbing. Heat Producing The majority of chemical reactions will be exothermic.
Expansion ratio The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature.
Flammable range (LEL & UEL) The difference between the upper and lower flammable limits.
Fire Point The temperature at which enough vapours are given off to support continuous burning.
Flash Point The minimum temperature at which a material gives off vapour in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will not continue to burn.
Halogenated hydrocarbon They are often more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. They decompose into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time.
Ignition (auto-ignition) temperature The minimum temperature to which a material must be raised before it will ignite.
Inhibitor Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation.
Instability Materials that decompose spontaneously, polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable.
Ionic and covalent compounds Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons.
Irritant (riot control agents) They cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim.
Maximum Safe Storage Temperature (MSST) The maximum temperature that an organic peroxide may be stored safely.
Melting Point/Freezing Point The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily. The temperature at which a liquid converts to a solid.
Miscibility Refers to the tendency or ability of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve in each other.
Nerve Agents Substances that interfere with the central nervous system. Exposure is primarily through contact with a liquid and secondarily through inhalation of the vapour.
Organic and Inorganic Derived from materials that are living or were once living, such as plants or decayed products. Inorganic material lacks carbon chains, but may contain a carbon atom.
Oxidation potential The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard.
pH The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion concentration as related to acidity or alkalinity.
Physical State The characteristic form of a material at ambient temperature.
Polar Having a pair of equal and opposite changes.
Polymerization Chemical reaction in which small molecules combine to form larger molecules.
Radioactivity The ability of a material to emit radioactive energy.
Saturated hydrocarbons Materials in which the carbon atoms are linked by only single covalent bonds.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons Materials that have at least one multiple bond between two carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous.
Aromatic hydrocarbons Materials that contain the benzene "ring," which is formed by six carbon atoms and contains double bonds. Its greatest hazard is Toxicity.
Self-accelerating decomposition temperature When this temperature is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreversible decomposition will begin.
Slurry Pourable mixture of a solid and a liquid.
Solution Mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved.
Specific gravity The weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water.
Strength The degree of ionisation of an acid or a base in water.
Sublimation The ability of a substance to change from the solid to the vapour phase without passing through the liquid phase.
Temperature of product Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product.
Toxic products of combustion Some materials generate more highly toxic gases than others do; therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them.
Vapour Density Weight of a vapour compared to air.
Vapour Pressure The force exerted on the inside of a closed container by the vapour in the space above the liquid in the container.
Vesicants(blister agents) These agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes, hours, or days (Mustard, Lewsite)
Viscosity Measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. During an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangered area.
Volatility Ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapour state. During an incident this will affect the dispersant in air and expand the endangered area.
Water reactivity Describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement.
Water solubility The ability of a substance to form a solution with water that can be important when determining control methods.
Parts per million/billion (ppm/ppb) Instrument reading used to determine the degree of hazard and values used to establish exposure limits.
Lethal dose (LD50) Causes the death of 50 percent of a group of test animals exposed to it by any route other than inhalation.
Lethal concentrations (LC50) The amount of a material in air that, on the basis of laboratory tests (inhalation route), is expected to kill 50 percent of a group of test animals when administered in a specific time period.
Permissible exposure limit (PEL) An OSHA term for the maximum concentration averaged over 8 hours, to which 95 percent of healthy can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week.
Threshold limit value time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) An American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) term for the maximum concentration, averaged over 8 hrs, to which healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hrs, 40 hrs per week.
Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL) This is the maximum average concentration, averaged over a 15-minute period, to which healthy adult can be safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously. Exposure should not occur more than four times a day with at least 1 hour between exposures.
Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C) This is the maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury, and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur.
Immediately dangerous to life and health value (IDLH) This is the maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment.
Rad The radiation absorbed dose (rad) equals the energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material (an erg is a unit of work energy).
Rem Roentgen equivalent Man (Rem); Millirem (mrem) The rem is the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation that produces the same biological effect as 1 rad of X rays or gamma rays (which are equal)
Rem Describes the biological damage done by the absorbed dose of radiation. Reflects both the dose rate and potential harm to the body. It is expressed in rems per hour or millirems per hour.
Roentgen A roentgen is the international unit of intensity of X rays or gamma rays. Used to measure the amount of radiation produced by gamma and x-rays. The unit of dose equivalent; takes into account the effectiveness of different types of radiation.
Alpha Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested.
Beta Can damage skin tissue, and they can damage internal organs if they enter the body. Full protective clothing, including positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, will protect against this type of radiation
Gamma Causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs; therefore, protective clothing is inadequate in preventing this radiation from harming the body.
Activity Disintegrations per second.
Absorbed Dose (RAD) was adopted as a replacement for exposure. The absorbed dose represents the amount of energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing material, but it does not describe the biological effects.
Half-Life Measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material. It indicates the time needed for a given amount of radioactive material to change to another nuclear form or element.
Inverse square law The effect from a localized source spreads uniformly throughout the surrounding space. Such as the light from a match, radiation from a piece of uranium, and the sound from a cricket.
Time, distance, and shielding Methods of protecting oneself from harmful exposures to radiation.
Created by: oldsmaug
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