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CJU: Ch 3 Vocab

CriminalJustice

QuestionAnswer
Barron v. Baltimore (1833) The protections of the Bill of Rights apply only to actions of the federal government.
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments added to the U.S. Constitution to provide specific rights for individuals, including criminal justice rights concerning searches, trials, and punishments.
Civil law Law regulating the relationships between or among individuals, usually involving property, contracts, or business disputes.
Double Jeopardy The subjecting of a person to prosecution more than once in the same Jurisdiction for the same offense; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment.
Entrapment The defense that the individual was induced by the police to commit the criminal act.
Fundamental Fairness A legal doctrine supporting the idea that so long as a state’s conduct maintains basic standards of fairness, the Constitution has not been violated.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Indigent defendants have a right to counsel when charged with serious crimes for which they could face six or more months of incarceration.
Grand Jury Body of citizens drawn from the community to hear evidence presented by the prosecutor in order to decide whether enough evidence existence to file charges against a defendant.
Inchoate Offense Conduct that is criminal even though the harm that the law seeks to prevent has not been done but merely planned or attempted.
Incorporation The extension of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to make binding on state governments the rights guaranteed in the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution (the Bill of Rights).
Legal Responsibility The accountability of an individual for a crime because of the perpetrator’s behavior and the circumstances of the illegal act.
Mens Rea “Guilty mind” or blameworthy state of mind, necessary for legal responsibility for a criminal offense; criminal intent, as distinguished from innocent intent.
Powell v. Alabama (1932) An attorney must be provided to a poor defendant facing the death penalty.
Procedural Criminal Law Law defining the procedures that criminal justice officials must follow in enforcement, adjudication, and corrections.
Self-Incrimination The act of exposing oneself to prosecution by being forced to respond to questions whose answers may reveal that one has committed a crime. The Fifth Amendment protects defendants against self-incrimination.
Substantive Criminal Law Law that defines acts that are subject to punishment and specifies the punishments for such offenses.
Created by: mylifewow