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Ch.6/MED 126

The Skeletal System

Skeletal system consists of? Bones and accessory structures that make up the joints.
Skeletal system provides a framework for? Support
Movement allows movement by providing attachment sites for? Skeletal muscle
Skull and rib cage protects? Internal organs
What is hemopoiesis? Blood formation
Hemopoiesis is produced in the? Red bone marrow
Hemopoiesis is produced in the red bone marrow from what type of cells? Stem cells
Movement and protection are functions of the? Skeletal system
Calcium storage is a function of the? Skeletal system
Calcium storage allows calcium levels to be maintained by? Putting calcium in or removing calcium from bones
What is essential for many body functions including clotting and muscle and nerve function? Calcium storage
Bone tissue is made up of? Connective tissue
What are osteocytes? Bone cells
The matrix of bone tissue is made up of? Calcium salts and collagen
Does bone tissue change constantly? Yes
There are 2 types of bone tissue called? Compact bone and spongy bone
Compact bone is AKA? Cortical bone
Compact bone is made up of columns called? Osteons or haversian systems
Concentric rings surround a? Haversian canal
Haversian canals contain? Blood vessels
Osteocytes are in spaces called? Lacuna
Osteocytes are in spaces called lacuna and communicate via? Canaliculi
Spongy bone is AKA? Cancellous bone
Is spongy bone very porous? Yes
What bone is NOT arranged into haversian systems? Spongy bone
Spongy bone often contain? Red bone marrow
Red bone marrow in spongy bone produces? RBCs, platelets, and 5 types of WBCs (hemopoiesis)
Long bones are longer than they are? Wide
Examples of long bones? Femur, humerus
There are 3 parts to long bones called? Diaphysis, Epiphysis, and Metaphysis
Diaphysis is AKA? Shaft
What is the middle long part of long bones? Diaphysis
What part of the long bone is hollow and compact? Diaphysis
The medullary cavity is in the? Diaphysis
The medullary cavity is AKA? Marrow canal
The medullary cavity contains _______ marrow? Yellow
The medullary cavity contains yellow marrow which is mostly? Adipose or fat
What are the ends of long bones called? Epiphysis
What is between the diaphysis and epiphysis? Metaphysis
The metaphysis contains the growth plate (____________) here during growth? Epiphyseal disc
What bones are about the same length as width? Short bones
Examples of short bones? Carpals and tarsals
What bones are flat? Flat bones
Ilia, skull, and ribs are examples of? Flat bones
What bones are irregular shapes? Irregular bones
Vertebrae and facial bones are examples of? Irregular bones
Short, flat and irregular bones are all made of? Spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone
Spongy bone is covered with thin layer of? Compact bone
What is articular cartilage? Hyaline cartilage that covers the opposing surface of synovial joints
Articular cartilage is very smooth to reduce? Friction
What is a fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers bone? Periosteum
Does periosteum cover where articular cartilage is? No
The periosteum contains blood vessels and? Nerves
In the periosteum, fibers merge with? Ligaments and tendons to attach them to bones
What contains osteoblasts that become active after injury? Periosteum
During embryonic growth the skeleton is a template/model of? Cartilage or fibrous connective tissue
There are 2 types of bone development called? Intramembranous ossification and Endochondral
Intramembranous ossification occurs in the? Flat bones of the skull and facial bones
In intramembranous ossification, 2 membranes of ____________ tissue are formed? Fibrous connective
During the 3rd month of development in intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts differentiate from? Fibroblasts that are present
Intramembranous ossification begins at a _______________ in each bone? Center of ossification
Intramembranous are incomplete at? Birth
What are fontanels? "Soft spots" of fibrous connective tissue membranes still present at birth
What allows for compression of the skull during birth? Fontanels
Fontanels permit? Growth
Fontanels are ossified by age? 2
During endochondral ossification, ________ model/template is replace by bone from osteoblasts? Cartilage
Most of the skeleton is made this way by? Endochondral ossification
Bone forms first during which ossification center? Primary ossification centers
Bones form second during which ossification center? Secondary ossification centers
In long bones the _______________ (growth plate) is a secondary center of ossification in each epiphysis? Epiphyseal disc
Which side does cartilage mitotically divide? Epiphysis side
Ossification occurs on the what side of long bones? Diaphysis
The fontanels of an infant's skull is made up of? Fibrous connective tissue
What are osteoclasts? Cells that break down bone by resorption
Osteoclasts resorb the inner diaphysis of long bones to form the? Medullary cavity or marrow canal
Bone begins as _____ marrow in the diaphysis but is replaced by ______ marrow after birth? Red, Yellow
Osteoclasts also function in? Maintenance and repair of bone
What are factors that affect growth and maintenance? Heredity, Nutrition, Hormones, Exercise or Physical stress
What is the genetic potential for height and bone mass? Heredity
What provides building blocks for the bones? Nutrition
Calcium, phosphorous, and protein are required to build? Bone
Vit. D is required for? Absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine
Vit. A & C are important for the protein part of the? Matrix
What are thyroxine, PTH, calcitonin, GH, testosterone, and estrogen? Hormones
What does exercise or physical stress do to the bones? Gives bone feedback to cause it to strengthen itself
What is decreased bone matrix causing weakness and a higher potential for fracture called? Osteoporosis
The 2 divisions of the skeleton are? Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
What forms the axis of the body? Axial skeleton
What division of the skeleton are the skull, spine, thoracic (rib) cage a part of? Axial skeleton
What forms the appendages and girdles? Appendicular skeleton
What are fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone? Ligaments
What does foramen mean? A hole or an opening
What does fossa mean? A depression
What does crest mean? A ridge or an edge
What does meatus mean? A passageway
What is a process? A projection
What is a facet? A flat projection
What is a chondyl? A "rounded" projection
What is a plate? Flat
What is a tubercle? A rounded projection
What is a tuberosity? A rounded projection
What surrounds the brain and protects it, the eyes and ears? Cranial bones
Frontal sinuses are in the? Frontal bone
Parietal bone means? "Wall"
The mastoid process, mastoid sinuses, external auditory meatus, and mandibular fossa are in the? Temporal bone
The foramen magnum means? "Large hole"
What is a spinal cord passageway? Foramen magnum
In the occipital bone, the condyles are 2 joint surfaces lateral to foramen magnum that articulate with the? C1 vertebra
What bone is shaped like a bat (mammal)? Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone contains the? Sella Turcica and sphenoid sinuses
What gland does the Sella Turcica hold? Pituitary gland
In the ethmoid bone, crista galli (rooster's comb) is a vertical projection that anchors the? Meninges
In the ethmoid bone, what forms the superior nasal septum? Perpendicular plate
In the ethmoid bone, what is the cribriform plate? Holes (olfactory foramina) that fibers from the olfactory bulb project through
The ethmoid bone contains _______ sinuses? Ethmoid
In the ethmoid bone, what are the 4 curly bones on lateral walls of the nasal cavity? Superior conchae
What are sutures? Joints of the skull
Are sutures immobile? Yes
What suture is between frontal and parietal bones? Coronal suture
The squamos suture is between? Parietal and temporal bones
The lambdoidal suture are between? Parietal and occipital bones
What suture is between parietal bones? Sagittal suture
The facial bones consists of the? Mandible, Maxillae, Nasal bones, Lacrimal bones, Zygomatic bones, Palatine bones, Vomer, and Inferior conchae
What is the lower jaw, the only movable bone, and condyle (condyloid processes)? Mandible
The maxillae are? Paired upper jaw bones
Maxillary sinuses are part of the? Maxillae
The maxillae forms? Anterior part of the hard palate
Nasal bones form the? Bridge of the nose
What is the medial orbit? Lacrimal bones
What are "cheek bones" Zygomatic bones
The palatine bones are the posterior part of the? Hard palate
What is a single facial bone? Vomer
The vomer is the inferior part of the? Nasal septum
What are inferior conchae? 2 curly bones on lateral nasal cavity
What is AKA spine, spinal column, and backbone? Vertebral column
The vertebrae in the neck are called ________ vertebrae and there are __ of them? Cervical, 7
The vertebrae posterior to the lungs are called ________ vertebrae, and there are __ of them? Thoracic, 12
The vertebrae in the small of the back are called _______ vertebrae, and there are __ of them? Lumbar, 5
The human spine has two sets of fused vertebrae; these are the? Sacrum and coccyx
The sacrum is composed of __ (number) fused vertebrae, and articulates with the? 5, hip bones
The typical anatomy of the vertebral column is? Body, Spinous process, transverse process, Facet (posterior) joint, and Rib facet (T only)
The weight baring part is the? Body
The spinous process is the _______ projection? Posterior
The transverse process is the _______ projections? Lateral
The facet (posterior joint) is? Superior and inferior
Cervical means? Neck
C1 is AKA? Atlas
What "holds up the world" and articulates with occipital condyles? Atlas
C2 is AKA? Axis
C1 pivots on C2 and is part of the? Axis
Thoracic is AKA? Dorsal
The thoracic articulates with? Ribs on the body and transverse process on each side
What is the lower back called? Lumbar
What is the "tailbone"? Sacrum
The sacroiliac (SI) joints are part of the? Sacrum
What is the vestigial structure that is a remnant of a tail? Coccyx
What is the vertebral canal? Canal formed by the vertebral arches that the spinal cord passes through
Vertebra is connected with? Ligaments and discs
What serves as attachment sites for muscles? Projections
What are discs? Fibrocartilage pads between bodies and symphysis joints
Discs cushion and permit? Movement
Are lateral curves normal? No
Lateral curves are called _______ if greater than 15 degrees or so? Scoliosis
4 normal A-P curves are? Cervical and lumbar lordosis and thoracic and sacral kyphosis
The type of bone that is made of osteons is? Compact bone
They type of bone that is NOT made of osteons is? Spongy bone
Flat and irregular bones are made pimarily of? Spongy bone
The shafts of long bones are made primarily of? Compact bone
The non-living part of bone tissue is called the? Matrix
New bone matrix for growth is produced by cells called? Osteoblasts
Reabsorption of bone matrix is the function of the cells called? Osteoclasts
The embryonic cranial bones are first made of? Fibrous Connective Tissue
The embryonic humerus and femur are both made of? Cartilage
In an embryonic long bone, the first center of ossification is in the __________, and secondary centers are in the _________? Diaphysis, Epiphyses
In a child's long bones, growth occurs at the? Epiphyseal discs
On the epiphysis side of an epiphyseal disc, the process taking place is the? Production of cartilage
On the diaphysis side of an epiphyseal disc, the process taking place is? Replacement of cartilage by bone
Long bones stop growing when all of their? Cartilage has been replaced by bone
The inherited maximum height a child can attain is called the? Genetic potential
Two vitamins necessary for the calcification process in growing bones are? A and C
Protein in the diet is needed to form the _________ in the bone matrix of a growing child. Collagen
The hormone that increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones is? Parathyroid hormone
The hormone that decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones is? Calcitonin
The hormone in women that promotes closure of the epiphyseal discs is? Estrogen
The hormone in men that promotes closure of the epiphyseal disc is? Testosterone
The hormone that provides energy for bone growth from all the three food types is? Thyroxine
The hormone that provides energy for bone growth only from glucose is? Insulin
The hormone that contributes to bone growth by increasing the rate of mitosis is? Growth hormone
The hormones that contribute to bone growth by increasing the rate of protein synthesis are? Thyroxine and Growth Hormone
Two hormones that provide the ATP production needed for growing bones are? Insulin and Thyroxine
One function of the occipital and parietal bones is the same in that they? Protect the brain
The bone that protects the receptors for healing is the? Temporal bone
Two bones that protect the eye are the? Frontal and sphenoid; maxilla; lacrimal; ethmoid; zygomatic
The air cavities in the maxillae and frontal bones are called? Paranasal sinuses
The mastoid sinus is in the? Temporal bone
The mastoid sinus is in the temporal bone and opens into the ___________ cavity? Middle ear
The skull is made lighter in weight by the presence of _________ in some of the bones? Sinuses
The sinus in the skull that does NOT provide resonance for the voice is the? Mastoid sinus
The manubrium and xiphoid process are both parts of the? Sternum
The vertebral column contains and protects the? Spinal cord
The shoulder joint is formed by the? Humerus and scapula
The hip joint is formed by the? Femur and hip bone
The shoulder and hip joints are similar in that both are? Ball-and-socket joints
The glenoid fossa and the acetabulum are both part of the? Ball-and-socket joint
The type of joint that permits the greatest range of movement is the? Ball-and-socket joint
The type of joint that does not permit movement is the? Suture joint
The humerus and ulna form a ______ joint? Hinge
The femur and tibia form a ______ joint? Hinge
The two pubic bones form a ________ joint? Symphysis
The atlas and the axis form a ______ joint? Pivot
The ulna and radius form a _______ joint? Pivot
The metacarpal of the thumb and the adjacent carpal form a _______ joint? Saddle
The parietal and temporal bones form a ______ joint? Suture
The mandible and temporal bone form a _____ joint? Condyloid
Gliding joints are found between? Carpals
What are bones of the wrist? Carpals
A synovial joint is enclosed by the? Joint capsule
The joint capsule is made up of? Fibrous connective tissue
In a synovial joint, the joint capsule is lined with? Synovial membrane
Synovial membrane produces? Synovial fluid
The function of synovial fluid is to? Prevent friction
The bone surfaces in a synovial joint are smooth because of the presence of? Articular cartilages
The function of a bursa in a joint is to permit the sliding of a? Tendon
Of pivot, saddle, and suture joints, the one that is NOT a synovial joint is the? Suture
Of condyloid, gliding, and symphysis joints, the one that is not a synovial joint is the? Symphysis
The structures that connect bone to bone are? Ligaments
Ligaments are made up of? Fibrous connective tissue
All of the kinds of blood cells are produced in the? Red bone marrow
The primary hemopoietic tissue is the? Red bone marrow
The type of bone marrow that is found in the diaphysis of long bones is? Yellow marrow
Calcium and phosphorus are nutrients necessary to become part of the bone? Matrix
Calcium is needed in the blood for the process of? Clotting
The paranasal sinuses are lined with _______ epithelium? Ciliated
The parts of the sternum are the? Manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process
The ribs that articulate directly with the sternum are the __________ and there are __ pairs? True ribs, 7
The ribs that articulate indirectly with the sternum are the __________ and there are __ pairs? False ribs, 3
The ribs that do NOT articulate with the sternum are called ___________ and there are __ pairs? Floating ribs,2
The rib cage with its muscles is directly involved in the functioning of the? Respiratory system
In the occipital bone, the condyles are 2 joint surfaces lateral to ________, that articulate with the C1 vertebra? Foramen magnum
There are __ pairs of ribs and sternum? 12
The manubrium, body, and xiphoid process are part of the? Sternum
What part of the sternum is superior? Manubrium
What part of the sternum is the (gladiolum)-main, middle part? Body of sternum
What part of the sternum is inferior? Xiphoid process
What is costal cartilage? Cartilage on the anterior aspect that attach ribs to sternum
Costal cartilage cobines with ___ rib cage? 7th
What protects organs and provides attachment for muscles to allow breathing? Ribs
What attaches the upper extremity to the axial skeleton? Shoulder girdle
Shoulder girdle includes the? Scapula and clavicle
Scapula is AKA Shoulder blade
What separates the infraspinous and supraspinous fossae? Spine of the scapula
What is the corocoid process? Attachment for the tendon of the short head of the bicep
What is the lateral depression for the head of the humerus? Glenoid fosa
The glenoid fossa forms a ____________ joint? Ball and socket
What attaches to clavicle to form the AC joint? Acromion process
The common landmark for the clavicle is called? Midclavicular line
On the clavical, the sternal end attaches to the sternum at the? Manubrium
On the clavicle, the acromial end attaches to the? Acromion process
What long bone is in the upper arm? Humerus
What is the attachment of the deltoid muscle? Deltoid
On the humerus, the distal end articulates with the ulna to form a ________ joint and the radius to form a _______ joint? Hinge, pivot
The capitulum articulates with the head of the? Radius
What articulates with the semilunar notch of the ulna? Trochlea
What is medial of the 2 forearm bones? Ulna
What is the bump that we call our "elbow"? Olecranon process
What is lateral of the 2 forearm bones? Radius
What allows pronation and supination of the hand? Radius
There are 8 wrist bones called carpals. These include? Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, and Hamate
Carpals joints form _______ joints? Gliding
What are long bones in the hand that attach proximally to the carpals and distally to the phalanges? Metacarpals
1st CMC is a ________ (sellar) joint? Saddle
What joint allows greater movement and opposition to the little finger? Saddle (sellar) joint
What are finger bones called? Phalanges
Phalanges form ______ joints? Hinge
PIP is known as? Proximal interphalangeal joints
DIP is known as? Distal interphalangeal joints
IP is known as? Interphalangeal joint (thumb only has an interphalangeal joint)
Pelvic girdle is AKA? Pelvis
Pelvic girdle is made up of the pelvis bones called? Os Coxa or Inominate bones
Os coxae are made of 3 bones called? Pubic, Ischium, and Ilium
The iliac crest is AKA? "hip bone"
PSIS is known as? Posterior superior iliac spine
PSIS is the posterior part of the? Iliac crest
Females pelvises are _______ than males? Wider
What forms a ball-and-socket joint with the head of the femur, very deep, strong and stable and is a weight bearing joint? Acetabulum socket
What is the long bone of the thigh? Femur
On the femur, what is the lateral projection on the proximal end and anchors abductors? Greater trochanter
On the femur, what is the medial projection on the proximal end and anchors extensors and adductors? Lesser trochanter
Femur forms a _______ joint called the knee? Hinge
On the femur, the distal end has two condyles that articulate with the? Tibia
Patella is AKA? Kneecap
What is a sesamoid bone anterior to the knee? Patella
On the patella, what tendon attaches to the superior base? Quadriceps tendon
On the patella, what ligament attaches the inferior apex to the tibial tuberosity? Patellar ligament
What bone is the weight-bearing bone of the lower leg? Tibia
The anterior crest forms the? Shin
What is AKA the ankle bone? Medial malleolus
What is the inferomedial part that forms the medial "ankle bone"? Medial malleolus
What is the non-weight bearing bone of the lower leg? Fibula
The base of the fibula forms the ________ malleolus? Lateral
The seven ankle bones are called tarsals and they include the? Talas, Calcaneus, Cuniforms (1-3), Cuboid, and Navicular
What articulates with the tibia? Talus
What is the heel bone called? Calcaneus
What is the largest tarsal called? Calcaneus
Cuneiforms (1-3) articulates with __________ (1-3) Metatarsals
What are "foot" bones called? Metatarsals
What are toes called? Phalanges
Great/big toe is called? Hallux
What arch of the foot runs A-P? Longitudinal arch
What arch runs transverse to longitudinal? Transverse
Arches of the foot are supported by? Ligaments
Joints are AKA? Articulations
The classification of joints are based on? Either amount of motion or anatomy of the joint or amount of movement
Is synarthrosis immobile? Yes
Examples of synarthrosis? Cranial and facial bones
Is amphiarthrosis slightly movable? Yes
Examples of amphiarthrosis? Pubic symphysis, IVD's
What is freely movable? Diarthrosis
Examples of diarthrosis and synovial joints only? Shoulder, knee, elbow, etc.
Synovial joints are made of ________ cartilage on the joint surface of each bone? Hyaline
The joint capsule of the synovial joints are made up of? Fibrous connective tissue
Synovial membrane lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid for? Lubrication and nourishment of the cartilage
What is bursa? Sacs of synovial fluid that provides cushion
Bursa can be found surrounding? Tendons or boney prominences
Bursa permits? Tendons to slide easily
Bursitis is? Inflammation
Degenaration is AKA? Osteoarthritis
What is DJD? Degenarative joint disease
What is DDD? Degenerative disc disease
What is osteophytosis? Growth of bone through a ligament or tendon
What is bony hypertrophy? Irritation of periosteum increases osteoblast activity
Degenaration is erosion of _________ cartilage, generally in weight bearing joints, but can be any joint? Articular
Created by: laceylake



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