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WC ch 9

The High Middle Ages

Who stood at the head of society in Europe but had limited power? Feudal Monarchs
Domesday Book a complete census in 1068. Included every castle and field in England.
Exchequer treasury
common law legal system based on custom and court rulings.
jury group of men sworn to speak the truth. determined which cases should be brought to trial and were the ancestors of today's grand jury.
William, Duke of Normandy Won battle of Hastings and on Christmas day in 1066, he was crowned king of England, with the title " " The conquerer.
William's government achievements -domesday book -exchequer
Henry II energetic, and well educated king. broadened the system of royal justice -common law -jury
Thomas a Becket archbishop at Canterbury. Close friend to Henry II. In 1170, 4 knights attacked and killed ____. -honored as a martyr and declared a saint
King John clever, greedy, cruel, and an untrustworthy king. Battled against King Philip II, Pope Innocent III, and his own English Nobles. signed the magna carta
Magna Carta 1215. The king affirmed a long list of feudal rights.
Grand Council body of law evolved into Parliament. Helped unify England
Parliament Unified England. Had representatives from the common people, lords and clergies. Later, was called model Parliament because it set up the framework for England's legislature. 2 bodies House of Lords, and House of Commons.
Hugh Capet count of Paris. was too weak to pose a threat. Bureaucracy
Philip II(Augustus) French King. appointed paid middle class officials to fill gov't positions. Launched crusade against the Albigensians with the help of Pope Innocent III.
Louis IX most admired French King. Was a saint.
Philip IV Louis' grandson. clashed with Pope Boniface VIII. Beaten by Philip IV. created the estates general.
Estates General had representatives from clergies, nobles, and townspeople. did not gain the power of the purse.
annul invalidate.
crusade a holy war
schism to split
levy collect
religious toleration policy allowing people to worship as they choose
scholasticissm school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief
vernacular the everyday languages of ordinary people, such as French, German, and Italian
epics long narrative poems
flying buttresses stone supports that stood outside the church
illumination artistic decoration of books
epidemic outbreak of rapid-spreading diseases
inflation rising prices
longbow 6 foot long bow that could rapidly fire arrows with enough force to pierce most armor
The Holy Roman Empire an empire that included Germany, part of France and Italy.
Holy Roman emperors took this title because they believed they were heirs to the emperors of Rome and were crowned by the Pope
Duke Otto I of Saxony King of Germany. Later sent an army to help the pope defeat rebels and was rewarded by being crowned emperor in 982.
Pope gregory IV spread Cluniac Reforms. Was admired and revered. banned lay investiture.
Emperor Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor. argued against Pope Gregory's ban on lay investiture. was excommunicated. later sought revenge on the pope and forced him to exile.
Concordat of Worms in 1122, they accepted a treaty that said; the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority. the emperor had the right to invest them with fiefs.
Frederick I Barbarossa. dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic Sea. did not achieve his goals.
frederick II grandson of Barbarossa. was an able, arrogant leader, willing to use any means to achieve his ends. also tried, but failed to subdue the cities of northern Italy.
Albigensian Crusades Innocent and Philip launched a holy war against the Albigensians in southern France. they wanted to purify the church and return to the simple ways of early Christianity.
What is the importance of Islam? created a new civilization that stretched from Spain to India. Muslim scholars and traders spread goods and ideas even further.
What is the importance of India? It was politically divided, it was a land of thriving cities. Mathematicians invented a number system, which Arabs adapted and eventually passed to Europeans.
What is the importance of China? China had a strong centralized government. China's culture flourished and influenced neighboring peoples.
What is the importance of West Arica? The Soninke people were building the great trading empire of Ghana.
What is the importance of the Americas? The Mayas had cleared rain forests and built cities dominated by towering temples.
Alexius I A Byzantine Emperor that wished for Christian knights to help him fight the invading Turks.
Pope Urban II listened to Alexius and called upon knights in the name of God to take back the land in Asia and march into the Holy Land.
Saladin a Muslim leader that took back Jerusalem during the second crusade. Also defended Jerusalem in the third crusade.
What is the importance of the Constantinople in the fourth crusades? When Christian knights failed to take back Jerusalem. Knights turned and helped Venetian merchants defeat their Byzantine trade rivals. The Crusaders captured and looted Constantinople, the Byzantine capital.
How did the crusades increase power for monarchs? Rulers won new rights to levy taxes in order to support the Crusades.
Marco Polo a young Venetian who set out for China with his father and uncle. Was known as the "prince of liars"
Reconquista reconquest
Isabella and Ferdinand married opened a way for a unified state.
Inquisition a Church set up to try people accused of heresy.
cathedral schools evolved into____ universities
location of the first universities Salerno and Bologna in Italy. Paris and Oxford.
Student life wake up at 5 for prayers. classes until 10am. first meal. then classes till 5pm.
curriculum arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, grammer, rhetoric, and logic
Women and education were not allowed to attend universities. could not get jobs or an education.
Christine de Pizan Italian born woman. raised her 3 children as a single mother(widow). earned a living by being a writer. one of the only women with a profession. Wrote the City of Ladies
Revolution in the world of learning Muslim scholars translated the work of Greek thinkers into Arabic. Jewish scholars later translated it into Latin, the language of Christian Europeans.
Scholasticism an idea that required reason to support Christian beliefs.
Why did science and mathematics make little progress? the works of science did not fit with the Church.
towering stone cathedrals served as symbols of were symbols of their wealth and religious devotion.
Romanesque church looked like castles with thick walls and towers. had massive thick walls to hold up the ceiling. there were no windows, so inside was dark and gloomy.
Gothic church had stone supports outside the church. supports allowed higher walls and left space for large stained-glass windows.
bubonic plague a disease that was spread across Asia and Europe by fleas on rats
Joan of Arc was a woman that inspired the battered and despairing French troops to fight anew. was declared a saint and later a martyr.
the cannon a weapon used by the French to attack English castles.
Created by: 544