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Spinal Root & Peripheral Nerve Injuries

C4 Disc: C3-4 / Muscles: Trapezius, scalene / Weakness: Shoulder shrugging / Reflexes: None
C5 Disc: C4-5 / Muscles: Deltoid, biceps, brachioradialis / Weakness: Shoulder abduction, external rotation of the arm, elbow flexion / Reflexes: Biceps, brachioradialis
C6 Disc: C5-6 / Muscles: Brachioradialis, biceps, pronator teres, extensor carpi radialis / Weakness: Elbow flexion, arm pronation, finger and wrist extension. Radial nerve injuries produce similar findings except brachioradialis function is normal. / Reflex
C7 Disc: C6-7 / Muscles: Triceps, pronator teres, extensor digitorum / Weakness: Elbow extension, finger and wrist extension / Reflexes: Triceps
C8 Disc: C7-T1 / Muscles: Flexor digitorum, flexor, abductor pollicis, interossei. / Weakness: Long flexors of fingers, intrinsics of hand (finger abduction, palmar abduction of thumb) / Reflexes: Finger flexor
T10 Disc: T9-10 / Muscles: --- / Weakness: Beevor's sign (sit-up -> umbilicus pulled upward) / Reflexes: ---
L2 Disc: L1-2 / Muscles: Iliopsoas / Weakness: Hip flexion / Reflexes: Cremaster
L3 Disc: L2-3 / Muscles: Iliopsoas, adductors / Weakness: Hip flexion, thigh adduction / Reflexes: Knee jerk
L4 Disc: L3-4 / Muscles: Quadriceps, sartorius, tibialis anterior / Weakness: Knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion and inversion / Reflexes: Knee jerk
L5 Disc: L4-5 / Muscles: Glutei, hamstrings, tibialis, extensior hallus/digiti, peronei / Weakness: Thigh adduction and internal rotation, knee flexion, plantar and dorsiflexion of ankle and toes / Reflexes: None
S1 Disc: L5-S1 / Muscles: Gluteus maximus, hamstrings, soleus, gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum / Weakness: Hip extension, knee flexion, plantar flexion of ankle and toes / Reflexes: Ankle jerk
S2 Disc: S1-2 / Muscles: Interossei / Weakness: Cupping and fanning of toes / Reflexes: ---
Ulnar nerve lesions Similar to C8 but also weaken thumb adductor
Deep peroneal nerve lesions Weakness limited to ankle and toe extensors
Posterior tibial nerve lesions Weakeness of foot inversion
Femoral nerve injury Weakness limited to knee extension; associated hip flexion and adduction weakness localizes to plexus; similar to L4
Radial nerve injury Produce findings similar findings to C6 except brachioradialis function is normal
Created by: megankirch