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Anatomy final

QuestionAnswer
aneurysmectomy the surgical removal of an aneurysm
arteriectomy the surgical removal of part of an artery
atherectomy the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
carotid endarterectomy the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain
aplastic anemia characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production
hemolytic anemia a condition of an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
megaloblastic anemia a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
pernicious anemia caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor(IF) that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract
sickle cell anemia a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
ACE inhibitors (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension
antihypertensives a medication administered to lower blood pressure
beta-blockers reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat
calcium channel blockers cause the heart & blood vessels to relax by decreasing the movement of calcium into the cells of these structures
diuretic administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium & water
angiitis AKA vasculitis) is the inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel
angiospasm the tightening of blood vessels
angiostenosis the abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel
arteriosclerosis (AKA hardening of the arteries) is any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening & the loss of elasticity of arterial walls
phlebitis the inflammation of a vein
bacterial endocaridits an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
carditis an inflammation of the heart
endocarditis an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
myocarditis an inflammation of the myocardium
pericarditis an inflammation of the pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
allergen which are substances that produce allergic reasctions
allergy (AKA hypersensitivity) is an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen
antibody a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
antigen any substance that the body regards as being foreign, & includes viruses, bacteria, toxins & transplanted tissues
immune reaction (AKA antigen-antibody reaction) involves binding antigens to antibodies
bacilli rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria is caused by the bacillus Clostridium tetani, & is transmitted through a cut or wound
rickettsia (AKA Rocky Mountain spotted fever) is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks & mites
spirochetes spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls & are capable of movement
staphylococci a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
streptococci bacteria that form a chain
chickenpox (AKA Varicella) is caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster & is highly contagious
infectious mononucleosis (AKA mono) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
rabies an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
rubella (AKA German measles or 3-day measles) is a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes & a fine, pink rash
aneurysm a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery
diastolic pressure occurs when the ventricles are relaxed, is the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
deep vein thrombosis (AKA deep venous thrombosis) is a condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein
orthostatic hypertension high blood pressure that occurs upon standing up
orthostatic hypotension low blood pressure that occurs upon standing
internal respiration the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells & tissues
bronchopnumonia a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles & surrounding alveoli
double pneumonia lobar pneumonia involving both lungs, & is usually a form of bacterial pneumonia
lobar pneumonia affects larger areas of the lungs, often including one or more sections, lobes of a lung
Mycoplasma pneumonia a milder but longer lasting form of the disease caused by the bacteria, is sometimes referred as waling pneumonia
dyspnea (AKA bad shortness of breath SOB)is difficult or labored breathing
eupnea easy or normal breathing
hyperpnea is commonly associated with exertion, is breathing that is deeper & more rapid than is normal at rest
hypopnea shallow or slow respiration
tachypnea an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually of more than 20 breaths per minute
acute nasopharyngitis among the terms used to describe the common cold
bronchitis an inflammation of the bronchi
bronchodilator a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchorrhea an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
pleurisy (AKA pleuritis) is an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
emphysema the progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by (1)a decrease in the total number of alveoli (2)the enlargement of the remaining alveoli & (3)the progressive destruction of the walls of the remaining alveoli
epitaxis (AKA nose bleed) is bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners or bleeding disorders
hemoptysis coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial hemorrhage
hemothorax a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
cirrhosis a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C
xerostomia (AKA dry mouth) is the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands
jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin, numous membranes & the eyes
colostomy the surgical removal of all or part of the colon
gastric bypass surgically makes the stomach smaller & causes food to bypass the first part of the small intestine
gastroduodenstomy the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach & the duodenum
gastrostomy a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
ileostomy the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine & the outside of the abdominal wall
aspiration pneumonia can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
rheumatoid arthritis commonly known by its abbreviation RA, is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints & some organs of other body systems are attacked
multiple sclerosis a prograssive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
lupus erythematosus (AKA lupus) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face & upper trunk
graves' an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism, is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos
Crohn's (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in in the digestive tract
sarcoma a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues & liquid tissues
metastasize the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another
metastasis a new cancer site that results from the spreading process
carcinoma a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
carcinoma in situ describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding
shingles (AKA Herpes zoster) is an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve
systolic pressure occurs when the ventricles contract, is the highest pressure against the walls of an artery
hemoglobin the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes
idiopathic hypertension consistently elevated blood pressure of unknown cause
immunodeficiency disorder occurs when the immune response is compromised
CD Crohn's Disease, contact dermatitis, communicable disease
HAV hepatitis A virus
UC ulcerative colitis
CRC colorectal carcinoma
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
atel/o incomplete, imperfect
cyan/o blue
phon/o sound, voice
ectasis stretching, dilation, enlargement
-pnea breathing
Phagocytosis & what blood cells use this process? the process of destroying pathogens by surrounding & swallowing them; white blood cells (WBC)
erythrocytes (AKA red blood cells) are mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow. The primary role of these cells is to transport oxygen to the tissues.
leukocytes (AKA white blood cells) are the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms & foreign substances.
TB tests Mantoux PPD skin test, tuberculin tine test
HIV tests ELISA
Small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum, Rugae, pylorus, pyloric sphincter
Large intestine cecum, ileocecal sphincter, vermiform appendix, colon, ascending, transverse, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
liver secretes bile & enzymes to aid in the digestion of fats
gallbladder store bile & releases it to the small intestine as needed
pancreas secretes digestive juices & enzymes into small intestine as needed
spleen filters foreign materials from the blood. Maintains the appropriate balance between cells & plasma in the blood. Destroys worn-out blood cells, releases hemoglobin, acts as a blood reservoir, & stores platelets.
triscupid valve controls the opening between the right atrium & the right ventricle.
pulmonary semilunor valve is located between the right ventricle & the pulmonary artery.
mitral valve (AKA the biscuspid valve) is located between the left atrium & left ventricle.
aortic semilunar valve is located between the left ventricle & the aorta.
lungs which are the organs of respiration, are divided into lobes.
right lung has 3 lobes: the superior, middle & inferior
left lung has only 2 lobes: the superior & inferior. It is slightly smaller than the right lung because of the space taken up by the heart.
surfactant a detergent-like substance produced by the lung, which reduces the surface tension. This allows the air to flow over the lungs & be absorbed more easily.
mediastium is the cavity located between the lungs. This cavity contains connective tissue & organs, including the heart & its veins & arteries, the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, the thymus gland,& lymph nodes.
pleura is a thin, moist & slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs & lines the inner surface of the rib cage
parietal pleura is the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, & forms the sac containing each lung.
visceral pleura is the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung.
pleural cavity (AKA pleural space) is the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes. This space contains a thin layer of fluid that allows the membranes to slide easily during breathing.
Created by: Karen G.