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Nervous System

master control and communication system nervous system
Two Divisions of the central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) cranial nerves and spinal nerves
how many pairs of cranial nerves 12
how many pairs of spinal nerves 31
signals move toward the CNS-2 terms sensory or afferent signals
signals are carried away from the CNS-2 terms motor or efferent signals
cell type which transmits electrical signals neurons
excitable cell type neurons
cell type which surround and wrap neurons supporting cells
nonexcitable cell type supporting cells
name the 3 main parts of a neuron cell body, axon, dendrites
extensive branching portion of a neuron, function as receivers dendrites
nerve fiber portion of a neuron, transmits impulses away from the cell body axon
cordlike organs in the Peripheral nervous system nerves
layer of delicate connective tissue surrounding a nerve axon endoneurium
groups of nerve axons bound into bundles nerve fascicle
connective tissue wrapping surrounding a nerve fascicle perineurium
whole nerve is surrounded by a tough fibrous sheath called epineurium
directional term meaning toward the nose rostral
directional term meaning toward the tail caudal
another name for the cerebral hemispheres cerebrum
3 parts of the diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
3 parts of the brain stem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
4 regions of the brain as a whole cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
where is cerebrospinal fluid produced? in the choroid plexuses
expansions of the brain's central cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid ventricles
deep grooves which separate the major regions of the brain fissures
fissure which separates the cerebrum and cerebellum transverse fissure
fissure which separates the two cerebral hemispheres longitudinal fissure
grooves on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres sulci
the twisted ridges between the cerebral sulci gyri
sulcus which separates the frontal and parietal lobes central sulcus
sulcus which separates the occipital from the parietal lobe parieto-occipital sulcus
sulcus which separates the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes lateral sulcus
lobe found deep within the lateral sulcus insula
gray matter, external layer of the cerebral hemispheres cerebral cortex
matter deep to the cerebral cortex cerebral white matter
found deep within the cerebral white matter, 3 terms deep gray matter, basal ganglia, basal nuclei
type of tract found in white matter: allows communication between right and left cerebral hemispheres commisures
the largest commisure corpus callosum
tract in cerebral white matter which connects different parts of the same hemisphere association fibers
tract in cerebral white matter which run vertically between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem and spinal cord projection fibers
brain part which forms the center core of the forebrain, surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres diencephalon
part of the diencephalon: the gateway to the cerebral cortex thalamus
part of the diencephalon: main visceral control center of the body hypothalamus
part of the diencephalon: includes the pineal gland epithalamus
endocrine gland which secretes the hormone melatonin (regulates sleep-wake cycle): found where? pineal gland, found in the epithalamus of the diencephalon
parts of the brain stem from rostral to caudal: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
cranial nerves I and II attach to the underside of the: cerebrum
cranial nerves III-XII attach where? brain stem
located dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata, this brain part smooths and coordinates body movements and helps maintain equilibrium cerebellum
protective layer covers the CNS and encloses the vessels that supply it meninges
3 layers in order of depth of the meninges dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
True or False: the spinal cord has two layers of dura mater false
brain protection which prevents most blood-borne toxins from entering the brain, but not an absolute barrier blood-brain barrier
inferior tapered end of the spinal cord conus medullaris
long filament of connective tissue attaching the spinal cord to the coccyx inferiorly filum terminale
origin for the spinal nerves that innervate the upper extremitites cervical enlargement
origin for the spinal nerves that innervate the lower extremities lumbar enlargement
collection of nerve roots inferiorly on the spinal cord cauda equina
lateral projection on the spinal cord anchoring the cord to the vertebrae denticulate ligaments
cranial nerve I olfactory
olfactory nerve function smell
cranial nerve II optic
optic nerve function sight
cranial nerve III oculomotor
nerve controlling four of the extrinsic eye muscles oculomotor
cranial nerve IV trochlear nerve
nerve controlling an extrinsic eye muscle trochlear nerve
cranial nerve V trigeminal nerve
nerve providing sensory innervation to the face, motor innervation of the chewing muscles-3 primary branches: opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular trigeminal nerve
cranial nerve VI abducens nerve
nerve which abducts the eyeball abducens nerve
cranial nerve VII facial nerve
nerve which innervates muscles of facial expression facial nerve
cranial nerve VIII vestibulocochlear nerve
sensory nerve of hearing and balance vestibulocochlear nerve
cranial nerve IX glosspharyngeal nerve
nerve which innervates structures of the tongue and pharynx glosspharyngeal nerve
cranial nerve X vagus nerve
mixed sensory and motor nerve which wanders into the thorax and abdomen vagus nerve
cranial nerve XI accessory nerve
accessory part of the vagus nerve accessory nerve
cranial nerve XII hypoglossal nerve
nerve which innervates the tongue muscles hypoglossal nerve
how many pairs of cervical nerves 8
how many pairs of thoracic nerves 12
how many pairs of lumbar nerves 5
how many pairs of sacral nerves 5
how many pairs of coccygeal nerves 1
motorvisceral division of the peripheral nervous system also called the involuntary nervous system autonomic nervous system
resting and digesting portion of the autonomic nervous system parasympathetic
fight flight and fright response portion the the autonomic nervous system sympathetic
ventricle opening: between the lateral ventricles and the thrid ventricle (connects the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle) foramen of monro
another name for the foramen of monro interventricular foramen
ventricle opening: lies between the thrid and fourth ventricle (connects the third and fourth ventricle) aqueduct of sylvius
another name for the aqueduct of sylvius cerebral aqueduct
connects the ventricles with the subarachnoid space, allows the cerebrospinal fluid to bathe the entire central nervous system (2-lateral and medial) medial= foramen of magendie, lateral= foramen of luschke
Created by: amyziolkowski



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