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education throughout Euro. history- 2nd period Alaina, Gabby, Maria

Behaviors of literacy at the beginning of the 20th century -85% more people could read -Growing literacy expected to create a bigger labor force -Spain, Russia, Austria, Hungary and Balkans still had low literacy -literacy was the intellectual parallel to the railroad and steamboat
Reading Materials in the 19th century -more periodlicles, books, libraries, etc because writers had a bogger audience -number of freethinking intellectuals increased because more of the public could read ideas shared by writers -books and journals catered to the marginally literate
Primary education in the 19th century governments start building elementary schools in Britain under Gladstone's Education Act of 1870 - both liberals and conservatives deam education necessary - teacher profession created for women
Realist movement in literature used midcentury cult of science to comfront readers with harsh reality of life- portrayed humans as subject to passions and materialism- saw society as a perpetual evil
Gustave Flaubert realist writer- "Madame Bovary" 1857 is story of dull provincial life and a woman's search for love - reguarded as first genuinely realistic novel bc it didnt include heroism, purpose, or civility
Emile Zola realist writer - wrote 20 novels with unusual themes like alcoholism, prostitution, adultry and labor strife- took leading role in defense of Captain Dreyfus from Dreyfus Affair
Henrik Ibsen carried realism into dramatic perception of domestic life - wrote plays: "A Doll's House" "Ghost" and "The Master Builder"
George Bernard Shaw Irish writer who defended works of Ibsen - wrote: "Mrs. Warren's Profession" about prostitution"Armsand the Man" and "Man and Superman" about scrns of love and war and and "Androcles and the lion" pillarising christianity
Revolt Against Reason Friedrich Nietzsche= german philosopher who questioned reason - opposed only actiong rationally and advocated living human life to full extent - criticized democracy and christianity
Sigmund Freud began psycoanalysis - examined various types of human behavior like decision making, dreams, and the roots of personality traits from childhood through adulthood - made revolutionary discoveries and theories of human behavior
studia humanitatis a liberal arts program of study embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics and moral philosophy
Humanism scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers - these people were usually great educators who mastered classical languages as well as the vernacular and rhetoric
"Education of the Orator" written by Roman orator Quintilian - uncovered in 1416 - used as the basic classical guide for the humanist revision of the traditional cirriculum
Florentine Academy informal gathering of influential Florentine Humanists devoted to the revival of the works of Plato and Neoplatonists
Printing press combined with the cheap cost of paper productio, helped literacy rates rise - moveable type - invented by Johann Gutenburg
Modern Devotion a kind of boarding school for reform-minded laity - started by the Bretheren of the Common life - represented individualistic approach to religion and sometimes hostile towards sacramental piety of the church and papal authority - Martin Luther went here
Nicolaus Copernicus wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" in 1543 challenging the Ptolemaic Model - first to propose a heliocentric universe
Galileo Galilei invented 8 lens-powered telescope which he used to make his own astronomical discoveries - popularized the Copernican system - wrote "Dialogue of the Two Cheif World Systems" defending Copernicus and put on trial during the inquisition
Francis Bacon attacked scholastic thinkers for placing too much emphasis on knowledge of ancients - urged exploration in search of one's own understanding of nature - human knowledge should produce deeds not just results - empericism
Rene Descartes invented analytic geometry - developed a scientific method that relied more on deductive reasoning than emperical observation - attacked scholatic philosophy and education and advocated mathematical model
Print Culture a culture in which books, journals, and pamphlets achieved a higher status - 1700s volumes of printed material increased throughout euro. due to increase in literacy
1st Encyclopedia created by Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond de'Alembert in 1751(all 17 volumes by 1772) - shows enlightenment movement's determination to probe life on earth not just the religious realm
Education Act of 1870 inforced in Britain by William Gladstone during his reign as prime minister - first time in British history that gov't took responsibility for establishing and running elementary schools
Created by: GHasenstab