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A.P. Gov. Po. Ch. 16

Advanced Placement Government Chapter 16

Standing to Sue The requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which depends on whether they have sustained or are likely to sustain a direct and substantial injury from a party or an action action of government.
Class Action Suits Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
Justiciable Disputes A requirement that to be heard a case must be capable of being settled as a matter of law rather than on other grounds as is commonly that case in legislavtive bodies.
Amicus Curiae Briefs Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the breifs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence a court's decision.
Orginal Jurisdiction The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
Appellate Jurisdiction The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved.
District Courts The 91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which trials are held and in which juries may be impaneled.
Courts of Appeal Appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases. In addition, they also hear appeals to orders of many federal regulatory agencies.
Supreme Court ThepinnacleoftheAmericanjudicialsystem TheCourtensuresuniformityininterpreting nationallawsresolvesconflictamong states&maintains nationalsupremacy inlaw Ithas originaljurisdiction&appellate jurisdictionbut unlikeother federalcourtsit controlsitsownagenda
Senatorial Courtesy Unwrittentradition wherelynominations for statelevelfederaljudicial postsarenot confirmedif they areopposed by a senaror from thestatein whichthenominee will serve Thetraditionalso applies2courts ofappealwhen thereisopposition frm the nomineesstatesenator
Solicitor General A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
Opinion A statement of legal reasoning behind a judicial decision. The content of an opinion may be as important as the decision itself.
Stare Decisis A Latin pharse meaning "let the decision stand." Most cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle.
Precedents How similar cases have been decided in the past.
Original Intent A view that the Constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the framers. Many conservatives support this view.
Judicial Implementation How and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy, thereby affecting the behavior of others. The courts rely on other units of government to enforce their decisions.
Marbury v. Madison The 1803 case in which CJ JohnMarshall & his associates first asserted the right of the SC 2 determine the meaning of the Constitution The decision established the Courts power of judicial review over acts of Congress in this case the JudiciaryAct of 1789
Judicial Review The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S Constitution. Judicial review was established by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury v. Madison.
United States v. Nixon The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privlege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions.
Judicial Restraint A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures.
Judicial Activism A judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decision, even charting new constitutional ground. Advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, espically those unmet by the majoritarian political process.
Political Questions A doctrine developed by the federal courts and used as a means to avoid deciding some cases, principally those involving conflicts between the president and Congress.
Statutory Construction The judicial interpretation of an act of Congress. In some cases where statutory construction is an issue, Congress passes new legislation to clarify existing laws.