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science-AP European

Science-AP European History-2011 Gilstrap mid-year review

QuestionAnswer
Newtonian World View World view underlying traditional science called "mechanistic" or "Newtonian". It is based in reductionism, determinism, materialism, and a reflection-correspondence view of knowledge. Although it is simple, coherent and intuitive.
Auguste Comte 19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857, Founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism.
Positivism A set of epistemological perspectives and philosophies of science which hold that the scientific method is the best approach to uncovering the processes by which both physical and human events occur, see Auguste Comte
Charles Darwin 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882, Established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.
Natural Selection Process by which traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers, a key mechanism of evolution, see Charles Darwin.
The Descent of Man A book on evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, Darwin's second great book on evolutionary theory, following his 1859 work, On The Origin of Species.
Herbert Spencer English philosopher, biologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era, developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world.
Ernst Mach February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916, Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves.
Henri Poincaré 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912, A French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science, made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics.
Wilhelm Roentgen 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923, German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays.
Henri Becquerel 15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908, French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the discoverer of radioactivity along with Marie Curie and Pierre Curie.
J.J. Thomson 18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940, Credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer, was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the electron.
electron A subatomic particle carrying a negative electric charge, it has no known components or substructure.
Quantum energy System or particle that is bound -- that is, confined spatially-- can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Relativity Physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein, it generalizes Galileo's principle of relativity—that all uniform motion is relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest.
Max Planck April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947, A German physicist who is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Albert Einstein 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955, A German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics, for this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics.
Werner Heisenberg 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976, A German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory.
Sigmund Freud 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939, An Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry, Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression.
Psychoanalysis A body of ideas developed by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and continued by others, it is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior, although it can also be applied to societies.
Created by: Euro Ap