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H.A. 4

Mr. Hall Skeletal System

Epiphysis Expanded portion on the end that articulates with another bone
Articular Cartilage Covering of hyaline cartilage on the epiphysis.
Diaphysis Shaft of the bone located between the epihpyses.
Periosteum Tough, vascular covering of fibrous tissue that encloses the entire bone.
Processes Projections on some bones that provide a site for attachment of tendons and ligaments
Compact Bone Bone that is located mainly in the diaphysis and has a continuous matrix with no gaps
Spongy bone Bone that is located mainly in the epiphyses and consists of numerous branching bony plates
Medullary Cavity The name of the hollow chamber with the tube that forms in the diaphysis in the compact bone.
The medullary cavity is continuous with... Spongy Bone
Marrow A specialized type of connective tissue that fills the medullary cavity and spongy bone continuation.
Endosteum Thin layer of cells that line the areas of the medullary cavity and spongy bone.
Osteocytes Bone cells
Lacunae Small chambers in which osteocytes are located
Osteonic Canal Also known as the haversian canal, lacunae form concentric cirlces around this.
How do osteocytes communicate? With nearby cells by cellular processes that pass through canaliculi
What is the matrix of the bone made of? Collagen (strength and resilience) and inorganic salts (hardeness and resistance to crushing)
Osteon In compact bone, the cylinder shaped unit formed by the osteocytes and surrounding matrix.
What is in each osteonic canal? Blood vessels and nerve fibers
What is spongy bone made of? Osteocytes and matrix
When does the total mass of bone tissue remain constant? In adult life
Osteoblasts Deposit calcium into the bone matrix
Osteoclasts Break down the calcified amtrix in order to reabsorb calcium.
What are the functions of bone? Support, Protection, Movement, Blood Cell Formation, and Storage
Support Give shape to structures and supports the body's weight.
Protection Protects internal organs
Movement Provides an attachment point for muscles in order to allow voluntary movement
Blood Cell Formation In the marrow
Storage Inorganic slats, fat, etc.
Red Marrow Found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis, function is to form red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and blood platelets (thrombocytes)
Yellow Marrow found in the medullary cavity of long bones and stores fat.
Inorganic Salts Main salt is calcium (also Mg, Na, and K)
Is calcium needed in many metabolic processes Yes
What happens when the calcium level is low in the blood? Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone releasing calcium.
What happens when the calcium level is high in the blood? Calcitonin from the thryoid gland stimulates osteoblasts to store calcium in the matrix.
Two major portions in the skeletal system. Axial Skeleton and Appendicular Skeleton
Axial Skeleton Skull (Cranium), Hyoid Bone (between the neck and lower jaw), Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (ribs and sternum)
Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle (scapula and clavicle), Upper Limbs, Pelvic Girdle (two coxal bones form the pelvis), Lower Limbs
The number of bones in the human skeleton 260
Skull Consists of 22 bones connected by lines called sutures, 8 bones make up the cranium, 13 the facial skeleton, the mandible is held to the cranium by ligaments.
Cranium Protects the brain, provides attachemtn for muscles that allow chewing and head movements, some bones contain paransal sinuses (air filled cavities) that are lined with mucous membranes that reduce the skull's weight and increases voice.
Cranial Bones Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid
Frontal Bone forms the anterior portion of the skull above the eyes
Parietal Bone Located on each side of the skull just behind the front bone, from the sides and roof of the cranium.
Occipital Bone Forms the back of the skull and base of the cranium.
Foramen Magnum Lower surface of the occipital bone where nerves leave the brain and travel through to enter the spinal cord.
Occipital Condyles Allow a point of articulation with the first vertebrae
Temporal Bone Located on the sides of the cranium below the parietal bone.
External Auditory Meatus Opening that leads to the middle ear
Mandicular Fossae Depressions on the temporal bone that allows an attachment for the mandible
Sphenoid Bone Wedged in bwtween several other bones in the anterior cranium, helps form the based of the cranium, sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbit.
Ethmoid Bone Located in front of the sphenoid bone, forms part of the roof of the nasal cavity, forms portions of the cranial floor, orbital walls, and nasal cavity walls.
Facial Bones Maxillae, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal, Nasal, Vomer, Inferior Nasal Conchae, Mandible
Maxillae Form the upper jaw and comprises the anterior roof of the mouth (hard palate), the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity.
Maxillary Sinuses (Largest) Inside of the maxillae lateral to the nasal cavity.
Palatine Bone Located behind the maxillae and form the posterior section of the hard palate and floor fo the nasal cavity.
Zygomatic Bone Form the prominences fo the cheeks below and behind the eyes, help from the lateral walls and the floor of the orbits.
Lacrimal Bone Located in the medial wall of each orbit, has a groove that leads from the orbit to the nasal cavity (allows tears to pass)
Nasal Bone Long, thin bones that lie side by side and form the bridge of the nose.
Vomer Bone Located in the midline of the nasal cavity and forms the nasal septum
Inferior Nasal Conchae Scroll shaped bones attached to lateral walls of the nasal cavity, support mucous membranes within the nasal cavity.
Mandible Lower jaw, has projection at both ends, two processes.
Mandibular Condyles Posterior process that articulates with the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones
Coronoid Process Anterior process that provides an attachment point for muscles used in chewing.
Infantile Skull Incompletely developed with fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones, fontanels, small face, prominent forehead, large orbits, small jaw and nasal cavity, two parts to the frontal bone.
Fontanels Membranous areas, allow movement between the bones and enables the skull to pass more easily through the birth canal.
Vertebral Column Extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the sekleton, composed of many individual verterbrae that are separated by masses of fibrocartilage called intervertebral disks, supports the head and trunk, protects spinal cord.
What does the spinal cord pass through? Vertebral Canal
typical Vertebrae Drum-shaped body forms the thick anterior portion of the bone, vertebral arch arises from the body and produces the vertebral formane where the spinal cord passes through, the nerves pass the intervertebral foramina.
Three types of vertebrae Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar
How many of each type of vertebrae are they? 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar
Sacrum Triangular structure composed of five fudes vertebrae that forms the based of the vertebral column.
Coccyx Tailbone that is the lowest part of the vertebral column, composed of four fused vertebrae.
Thoracic Cage ribes, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and costal caritilage, bones support the shoulder girdle and upper limbs.
Ribs 1st seven pair are true, last 5 pair are called false, the 1st three of the last 5 connect to the costal cartilage of the seven, and the last two are floating.
Sternum Manubrium (upper portion), Body (middle) Xiphoid Process (lower part that projects downward)
Pectoral Girdle Supports the upper limbs and is an attachment for several muscles that move them, has four parts.
Clavicles Collarbones that are slender rodlike bone with elongated S-shapes, located between the base of the neck and between the manubrium and scapulae, help hold the shoulders in place, provide attachment to muscles of the upper limbs, chest, and back.
Scapulae Shoulder blacks, triangular bones, spine divides the posterior surface into two portions, acromian and coracoid process.
Acromian Process Forms the tip of the shoulder articulates with the clavicle and provides attachment for muscles of the upper limb and chest.
Coracoid Process Curves anteriorly and inferiorly to the clavicle, provides attachment for upper limb and chest muscles.
Glenoid Cavity Located between the Acromian and Coracoid process, the point of articulation with the humerus.
Upper Limb Form the framework fo the arm, forearm, and hande, provide attachmetns for muscles, and function as levers that move limb parts.
Humerus Extends from the scapula to the elbow, proximal end has a head that fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula, dsital end has two smooth condyles that articulate with the radius on the lateral side and the ulna on the medial side.
Radius Located on the thumb side of forearm and extends from the elbow to the wrist, crosses over the ulna when the hand is turned so that the palm faces backward with a dislike head at the upper end of the radius articulates with the humerus and an ulnus notch
Biceps Branchii Attaches to the radius (this muscle flexes the forearm at the elbow)
Ulna Longer than the radius and overlaps the humerus posteriorly, the proximal end articulates with the humerous, the distal end articulats laterally with the radius and with a disk of fibrocartilage inferiorly
Wrist 8 carpal bones arranged in two rows of four and are collectively called the carpus.
Palm Five metacarpal bones whose distal ends form the knucles in a clenched fist.
Phalanges Finger bones each finger has three except the thumb which has two
Pelvic Girdle Consists of two coxal bones that articulate with the sacrum, along with this the sacrum, and coccyx the pelvis is formed.
The three parts of the coxal bone Ilium, Ischium and Pubis
Acetabulum The cup shaped cavity in which the illium, ischium, and pubis are fused, this depression is on the lateral surface of the hipbone receiving the head of the femur.
Ilium Large and uppermost portion of the coxal bone, flares outward, joins the sacrum posteriorly.
Iliac Crest Margin of prominence of the hip.
Ischium Lowest portion of the coxal bone, l-shaped bone that supports the weight of the body during sitting.
Pubis Constitutes the anterior portion of the coxal bone.
Symphysis Pubis Two pubic bones that join at the midline forming this joint
Pubic Arch The angle these bones form below the symphysis
Pelvis The portion each pubic bone passes through posteriorly and downward to join an ischium.
Obturator Foramen large opening between the bones on either side, smaller and farther apart in females.
Pelvic Brine An imaginary line, that if was drawn, from the edge of the scarum and anteriorly to the margin of the symphysis pubis.
Lower Limb The framework of the thigh, leg, and foot, provide attachment for muslces that move the lower leg.
Femur Longest bone in the body and extends from the hip to the knee.
Greater and Lesser Trochanter Just below the head is a neck and the two processes that provide attachment for muslces of the lower limbs and buttocks
Lateral and Medial Condyles Two rounded processes at the distal end of the femur that articulate with the tibia of the lower leg.
Patella Kneecap located in a tendon that passes over the knee which articulate with the femur on its distal, and anterior surface.
Tibia Shinebone larger of the two bones located on the medial side, two depressions that articulte with femur condyles, atachment for ligaments in ankle, proximal end articulates with fibula, inferior surface articulates with the talus
Fibula Long, on the lateral side oef the tibia, proximal end articulates with tibia, distal end articulates with ankle and protrudes on the lateral side
Foot Seven tarsal bones, talus articulates with tibia and fibula, only bone free to move, 5 metatarsal that form the arch providing stable springy base for the body.
Calcaneous Largest bone in the ankle that helps support body weight. Heel bone
Toes have how many phalanges? Three, two in the big toe
Joints Articulations, junctions between bones, vary, classified as immovable, slightly moveable, or freely moveable, also classified as types of tissues that bind bones together
Fibrous Joints Lie between bones that colsely contact one another, thin layer of dense connective tissue joins bones together ex. sutures. Most are immovable.
Cartilaginous Joints Bones connected by fibrocartilage or hylane cartilage, allow limited movement. ex. intervertebral disks, symphysis pubis, and first rib with the sternum
Synovial Joints Majority of joints, freely movable, covered with hyaline cartilage, synovial membranes that secrete synovial fluid, some have menisci associated with bursae.
Menisci Shock absorbing pads of fibrocartilage
Bursae located between skin ande bony prominence, ex elbow and knee, aid in the movement of tendons that glide over these parts or tendons.
Ball and Socket Joint Consists of a bone with a ball-shaped head that articulates with a cup-shaped cavity in another bone, allow wider range of motion including rotational ex. shoulder and hip
Condyloid Joint Oval-shaped condyle of on bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone, variety of movement but not rotational.
Gliding Joint Located between nearly flat or slightly curved surfaces of bones that allow sliding and twisting movements between them, ex. mostly in wrist and ankle, and ribs 2-7 with the sternum
Hinge Joint Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another, allows movement in one plane, ex. elbow.
Pivot Joint Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring of formed bone and ligament, movement in rotation around a central axis, ex. atlas-axis.
Saddle Joint Forms between bones whose articulating surfaces have both concave and covex regions, variety of movements, thumb.
Created by: whysayname



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