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vocabulary pertaining to the special sense organs

iris the pigmented, involuntary muscle that acts as the diaphragm of the eye
sclera the firm white fibrous outer layer of the eyeball; protects and maintains eyeball shape
lacrimal gland the compound gland that secretes tears and lubricates the surface of the eye and the conjunctiva of the eyelid
conjunctiva the thin, protective mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior surface of the eyeball
optic nerve either of the second pair of cranial nerves that arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain
lens the elastic, doubly convex structure in the eye that focuses the light entering the eye on the retina
cornea the transparent anterior portion of the eyeball
pupil an opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the eye
aqueous humor the watery fluid in the anterior champers of the eye; more specifically in the cornea
vitreous humor the clear gelatinous substance that fills the eyeball between the retina and the lens
optic disc a small oval-shaped area on the retina marking the site of entrance into the eyeball of optic nerve
retina light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones
choroid the pigmented nutritive layer of the eye
suspensory ligament fibrous ligament that holds the lens in place in the eye
rod one of the two types of photosensitive cells in the retina
cone one of the two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye; provides for color vision
photoreceptor specialized receptor cells that respond to light enery
fovea centralis a small depression near the center of the retina, constituting the area of most acute vision
refraction the turning or bending of any wave, such as a light or sound wave, when it passes from one medium into another of different optical density; the ability of the eye to bend light so that an image is focused on the retina
magnification the process of enlarging the size of something as an optical image; act of magnifying
astigmatism a visual defect resulting from irregularity in the lens or cornea of the eye causing the image to be out of focus
hyperopia farsightedness
myopia nearsightedness
pinna another name for auricle; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
tympanic membrane the eardrum
eustachian tube slender tube that connects the tympanic cavity with the nasal part of the pharynx and serves to equalize air pressure on either side of the eardrum
malleus the hammer-shaped bone that is the outermost of the three small bones in the mammalian middle ear; also called hammer
incus an anvil-shaped bone between the malleus and the stapes in the mammalian middle ear, also called the anvil; a thunderhead
stapes the innermost of the three small bones of the middle ear, somewhat like a stirrup; also called a stirrup
oval window (round window) the oval opening in the middle ear to which the base of the stapes is connected and through which the ossicles of the ear transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea
cochlea a cavity of the inner ear resembling a snail shell; houses the hearing receptor
semicircular canals any of three tubular and looped structures of the inner ear, together functioning in maintenance of the sense of orientation and equilibrium or balance in the body
vestibule a cavity, chamber, or channel that leads to or is an entrance to another cavity; or a canal to the ear; together with the semicircular canals makes up the organ that maintains equilibrium in vertebrates
auditory nerve either of the eighth pair of cranial nerves that carries sensory impulses from the ear to the brain; transmits information related to sound and balance
equilibrium (as it pertains to balance) balance; a state when opposite reactions of forces counteract each other exactly;a state of bodily balance, maintained primarily by special receptors in the inner ear
tinnitus sound in ears, such as buzzing, ringing, or whistling, occurring without an external stimulus and usually caused by a specific condition, such as an ear infection, the use of certain drugs, a blocked auditory tube or canal, or a head injury
chemoreceptor receptor sensitive to various chemicals in solution
olfactory receptor any of the specialized, nucleated cells of the mucous membrane of the nose that serve as the receptors for smell
olfactory nerve any of numerous olfactory filaments in the olfactory portion of the nasal mucosa that enter the olfactory bulb, where they terminate in synaptic contact with mitral cells, tufted cells, and granule cells; also called first cranial nerve
taste bud receptor for taste on the tongue, roof of mouth, pharynx, and larynx
Created by: McKayla Edmonds



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