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Chapter 14 D

Special senses

retina sensitive nerve cell layer of eye 3rd inner most layer changes energy of light rays into nerve impulses
sclera white portion of eye maintains shape of eye ball and is protective covering for eye
iris colored part of eye
pupil opening in center of iris controls amout of light entering eye
iris colored part of eye
pupil opening in center of iris controls amout of light entering eye
Conjunctiva thin mucous membrane layer that lines anterior part of eye inner and outer surfaces which is exposed to air and the inner part of the eyelids covers sclera
lacrimal gland under upper eye lid and produces tears
lysozyme antibacterial exnzyme
lacrimal duct located at inner edge of eye
Canthus inner edge of eye
eyelids upper and lower and keep surface lubricated and protect
eye lashes along edges of eye lids and protect eyeball
cornea transparent, nonvascular layer covering the colored part of the eye(Iris)
uvea vascular middle layer of eye
choroid layer beneath sclera that provides blood supply and nutrients to eye
radial muscles more light to enter eye
circular muscles less light to enter eye
lens structure that aids in focusing images clearly
ciliary body secretes aqueous humor and adjusts lens to view near objects
suspensory ligaments numerous straight fibrils which attach to lens and hold it in place adjust lens for proper focus
accomodation ability of lens to focus clearly on objects at various distances
optic nerve transmits impulses to brain for interpretation of image seen
cones visualize color, central vision, vision in bright light
fovea centralis small depression within macula lutea
macula lutea oval, yellowish spot near center of retina sharpest image-central vision
rods vision in dim light and peripheral vision
optic disc insensitive to light-blind spot
anterior chamber in front of lens and iris and behind cornea
posterior chamber between iris and suspensory ligaments
aqueous humor clear watery fluid maintains proper pressure
vitreous humor clear jelly like substance that gives shape to eve ball
refraction bending of light rays as they pass through structuresof eye to produce clear image
errors of refraction astigmatism, hyperopia, myopia, presbyopia
ambiopia(diplopia) double vision when each eye focuses separately
amblyopia reduced vision that is not correctable and there is no obvoius cause
ambly/o dull,dim
anisocoria diameter of pupils not equal
aniso unequal
cor/o pupil
phak/o lens
aphakia absence of lens
aqueaous watery
Argyll-Robertson pupil pupil that constricts upon accomodation but not in response to light
biomicroscopy(slit lamp exam) examination of eye by use of slit lamp and magnifying lens
blepharochalisis relaxation of skin of eye lid
blepharoptosis drooping of upper eyelid
bleparospasm twithcing of eye lid muscles
conjunctivitis inflammation of conjunctiva
corneal pertaining to the cornea
cycloplegia paralysis of ciliary muscle of eye
cycl/o ciliary body
dacryoadenitis inflammation of lacrimal gland
dacryorrhea excessive flow of tears
ectropion edges of eye lid turn outward
emmetropia state of normal vision
entropion edges of eye lid turn inward
episcleritis inflammation of outermost layers of sclera
esotropia(crosseyes) inward turning of one eye
eso within
tropia to turn
exotropia outward turning of one eye
extraocular pertatining to outside of eye
extra outside,beyond
floaters spots that drift or float
funduscopy examination of fundus of eye base or deepest part of eye usinf opthalmoscope opthalmoscopy
hemianopia blindness in one half of visual field
irridocyclitis inflammation of iris and ciliary body
iritis inflammation of iris
keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of cornea and conjunctiva
keratoconus cone shaped protrusion of center of cornea not accompanied by inflammation
keratomycosis fungla growth on cornea
lacrimation secretion of tears from lacrimal glands
miosis abnormal constriction of pupil of eye
miotic agent that causes pupil of eye to constrict
mi/o smaller
sis condition
tic pertaining to
mydriasis abnormal dilation of pupil
mydr/o widen
iasis abnormal condition
mydriatic agent causing pupil to dilate
nasolacrimal pertaining to nose and lacrimal ducts
nystagmus involuntary rhythmic jerking movements of eye
opthalmopathy any disease of the eye
optic pertaining to eyes of sight
optician fills prescriptions
opthamologist medical doctor specializing in the eye total eye care
optometrist doctor that examines eyes
palebral pertaining to eyelid
papilledema swelling of optic disc
phacomalacia softening of lens of eye
photophobia abnormal sensitivity to light
presbyopia poor near vision due to age
presby/o old age
pupillary pertaining to pupil
retiopathy any disease of retina
sclerectomy removal of portion of sclera
scotoma area of blindness within usual field surrounded by area of normal vision
scot/o darkness
ulveitis inflammation of uveal tract which includes iris, ciliary body, choroid
vitreous pertaining to vitreous body of eye
vitre/o glassy
glauco gray,silver
ton/o tension
xer/o dry
astigmatism refractive error causing light rays to to be focused irregularly on retina due to abnormal shape of cornea or lens
blephaaritis inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis eye lid partially or totally covers eye as result of weakened muscle
blindness loss of sense of sight or extreme visual limitaions
color blindness (monochromatism) inabilaty to see visual colors clearly
Daltonism can't distinguish greens from reds
achromatic vision can't distinguish any color except white,gray,black
cataract lens of eye progressively cloudy
chalazion cyst or nodule on eyelid
conjunctivitis acute(pink eye) inflammation of mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eye ball
corneal abrasion disruption of cornea's surface epithelium
diabetic retinopathy scarring of tissues of retina caused by diabetes leading cause of blindness
biomicroscopy examination of internal eye
vitrectomy removal of vireous hemmorhages
ectropion turning out of eye lash margins especially lower eyelid tears don't flow into tear ducts dryness and irritation
entropion turning in of the eye lash margins resulting in sensation of foreign nody in eye rdness,tearing,burning,itching
exophthalmia abnormalprotrusion of eye balls usually in both eyes inability to close eye lids
glaucoma group of eye disorders due to increase in intraocular pressure
tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure
pachymetry process of measuring corneal thickness
iridotomy creation of small hole between anterior and posterior chambers
Chronic open angel glaucoma break down in drainage system of circulation of aqueous humor
chronic open angle glaucoma most common and gradual
Acute closed angle glaucoma rapid occurance of increase intraocculat pressure in a short period of time
Secondary glaucoma complication of another disorder,trauma of surgery swelling of eye tissue causes obstructed drainage of aqueous humor and increased intraocular pressure
hemianopia blindness in half of visual field
hordeolum(stye) bacterial infection of eye lash folicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness,swelling,tenderness in margin of eye lash
hyperopia refractive error in which lens of eye cannot focus on an image accurately resulting in impaired close vision eye ball is shorter than normal
hyperopia(farsightedness) better clarity of distant objects blurred vision of close objects
hyphema(hyphemia) bleed in anterior chamber of eye from compilcation of surgery or blunt eye injury eye emergency
keratitis inflammation of cornea
macular degeneration Senile or age related macular degeneration (ARMD) progressive deterioration of retinal cells in the macula due to aging
dry form slow progression of macular degeneration
wet form more severe macular degeneration
myopia(nearsighetness) refractive error in which lens cannot focus on image accurately resulting in impaired distant vision because eyeball is longer than normal can see close objects better
nyctalopia inadequate vision at night
nystagmus rhythmic involuntary movements of eyes
opthalmia neonaturum pus containing inflammation of conjunctiva or cornea in newborn
Neisseria gonorrheal conjunctivitis and chlamydial conjunctivitis spread to neonate while passing through birth canal
presbyopia a refractive error after age 40 due to decreasing loss of elasticity
pterygium irregular growth developing as fold in conjunctiva
retinal detachment partial or complete splitting away of retina from pigmented vasculat layer caled choroid interrupting vascular supply to retina -medical emergency
retinal tear opening in retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor
scleritis inflammation of sclera
scotoma defined area with decreased visual function
strabismus failure of eyes to gaze in the same direction
nonparalytic strabismus eye position of 2 eyes has no relationship inherited most common strabismus
convergent strabismus(crosseye) esotropia eye turns inward
divergent strabismus(walleye) exotropia eye turns outward
synechia adhesion in eye caoused by traouma or surgery complicaiton
trachoma infectious eye disease caused by chlamydia trachomatitis chronic and can lead to blindness contagious
uveitis inflammation of all or part of middle vascular layer of eye made up of iris,ciliary body, choroid
cycloplegic agent causes paralysis of ciliary muscle allowing it to rest
corneal transplant surgical transplantation of a donor cornea
electronystagmography group of tests used in evaluating vestibulo-ocular reflex-normal reflux
nystagmus eye movements
caloric testing directly installing water into inner ear canal making contact with tympanic membrane and recording eye movement
electroretinogram(ERG) recording of changes in electrical potential of retina after stimulation of light
extracapsular cataract surgical removal of anterior segment of lens capsule along with lens allowing for insertion of intraocular lens implant
fluorscein staining application of a florescein stained sterile filter paper strip moistened with a few dorps of sterile saline or sterile anesthetic to lower part of eye to visualize a corneal abrasion abrasion would be bright green
gonioscopy process of viewing anterior chamber angle of eye for abnormal angle structures
intraocular lens implant surgical process of cataract extraction and insertion of artificial lens
iridectomy extraction of small sement of Iris to open anterior chamber angle and permit flow of aqueous humor between anterior and posterior chambers and relieve intraocular pressure
keratoplasty(corneal grafting) transplantation of corneal tissue from one eye to another to improve vision in affected eye
laser in situ keratomileusis laser vision correction for nearsightedness
Ophthalmoscopy examination of internal and external structures of eye with opthalmoscope
phacoemulsification remove lens using ultrasound vibrations to split up lens material into tiny particles that can be suctioned out of eye
phot-refractive keratectomy layers of corneal surface cells shaved ly laser to flatten cornea and reduce nearsightedness
retinal photocoagulation uses argon laser to treat glaucoma,retinal detachment,siabetic retinopathy
slit lamp exam(biomicroscopy) exam of external and internal structures of eye using low power microscope combined with high intensity light source
tonmetry determine intraoccular pressure by calculating resistance of eyeball to applied force
trabeculectomy surgical excision of portion of corneoscleral tissue to decrease intraocular pressure in patients with severe glaucoma
trabecuolplasty surgical creation of permanent fistula used to drain fluid from eye's anterior chamber
ear ear, balance or equilibrium
audiogram chart illustrating lowest or faintest sounds detected by ear
external ear visible part of ear not contained withing head
auricle or pinna cartilaginous flap that has a fleshy lower portion known as the ear lobe in external ear
external auditory canal tube leading form auricle to middle ear
cilia tiny hairs that transmit sound waves inward
ceruminous glands modified sweat glands that secrete ear wax to lubricate and protect ear
tympanic membrane(eardrum) thin semitransparentmembrane that transmits sound vibrations to inner ear
auditory ossicles 3 tiny bones of middle ear
malleus hammer shaped transmits sound to 2nd ossicle the Incus
Incus anvil shaped and transmits sound to 3rd ossicle the stapes
stapes tiny stirrup shape transmits to inner ear
eustachian tube(auditory tube) connects middle ear to pharynx opens to equalize pressure
oval window oval shaped opening that separates middle and inner ear
inner ear mazelike srtucture that has bony and membranous structures
bony labyrinth bony structures of inner ear vestibule,cochlea,semicircular canals
vestibule central part of inner ear
utricle and saccule membranous pouches or sacs that help maintain balance
cochlea snail shaped bony structure
endolymph and perilymph auditory fluids that aid in transmission of sound vibrations located in cochlea
organ of corti spiral structure within cochlea that has hair cell stimulated by sound vibrations
semicircular canals 3 bony filled loops that maintain balance
Cerebral cortex where impulses are interpreted as hearing
acoustic pertaining to sound or hearing
audiogram recording of faintest sound heard
auditory pertains to sense of hearing
aural pertains to ear
auriculotemporal pertains to ear and temporal area of skull
barotitis media inflammation or bleeding of middle ear caused by changes in atmospheric pressure
cochlear pertains to snail shaped structure of middle ear
labyrinthitis inflammation of inner ear
mastoiditis inflammation of mastoid process
myringoplasty)tympanoplasty) surgical repair of eardrum to corect hearing loss
myringotomy(tympanotomy) surgical incision into eardrum
otoalgia(otodynia) ear pain
otitis media inflammation of middle ear
otomycosis fungal infection of external auditory meatus
otorhea drainage from ear
presbycusis hearing loss with age
purulent pus containing
salpingoscope instument to examine nasopharynx and eustacian tube
serous producing serum
stapedectomy surgical removal of stapes
tinnitus ringing or tinkling in ears
vertigo sensation of spinning
cholesteatoma slow growing cystic mass made up of epithelial debris and cholesterol in middle ear
deafness conductive hearing loss caused by break down of transmission sound waves through middle or external ear
deafness sensorineural hearing loss caused by inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to brain from inner ear damage to auditory nerve or cochlea sould be caused by exposure to loud noises or medication
cochlear implant procedure to restore sound perception
impacted cerumen excessive accumulation of the wax like secretions from the glands of the external ear canal
labyrinthitis infection or inflammation of labyrinth or inner ear mostly the 3 semicircular canals causes of the inner ear which are fluid filled chambers that control balance causes dizziness and effects balance and rapid involuntary eye movements and sensorineural he
mastoiditis inflammation of mastoid process usually and expansion of middle ear infection
mastoid process round part of skull's temporal bone adjacent to middle ear filled with air cavities or mastoid sinuses earache, hearing loss, tenderness,swelling, and constant throbbing pain,fever,tinnitus,drainage
meniere's disease chronic inner ear disease too muc fluid in labyrinth(endolymph)dizziness,hearing loss, pressre or fullness feeling and tinnitus
otis externa(swimmer's ear) inflammation of outer or external ear canal growth of bacteria or fungi in external ear pain when ear is tugged and red swollen ear canal
otitis media acute (AOM) middle ear infection mostly in infants, toddlers,preschoolers
serous otitis media (SOM) collection of clear fluid in middle ear that migh follow acute otitis or may be caused by an obstruction of eustacian tube fullness of ear popping or snapping,effects mobility of tympanic membrane eardrum has dull air bubbles or fluid appearance
supporative otis media(SOM) collection of pus containing fluid in middle ear causing pain temperature,dizzinessdecreased hearing,tinnitus
ser/o blood serum
otosclerosis footplate of stapes becomes immobile and secured to oval window causing hearing loss
perforation of tympanic membrane rupture of tympanic membrane or eardrum
audiometry process of measuring how well an individual hears frequencies of sound waves
decibals loudness of sound
otoscopy use otoscope to view and examine tympanic memnrane and parts of outer ear for lesions, ear wax, color, intactness
tuning fork test(Rinne test) examination comparing bone conduction and air conductionvibrating tuning fork placed on mastoid bone until until sound can no longer be heard then moves to ear canal to see if sound is heard there normal would be air longer than bone
tuning fork tes(Weber test) decide id hearing deficit is sesorineural- sound louder in uneffected ear or conductive-louder in effected ear tuning fork on forehead and evaluate sound in each ear
otoplasty removal of protion of cartillage of ear to bring oinna and auricle closer to the head cosmetic
stapedectomy microsurgical removal of stapes with otosclerosis improves hearing
hearing aids device that amplifys sound to provide better perception and interpretation of words for person with hearing deficit
in canal style hearing aid least noticable small
in ear style hearing aid worn in external ear and is larger and more noticable more amplification
behind ear style hearing aid more amplification thatn in canal or in ear
body hearing aid microphone and amplifier clipped on clothing
myringotomy(tympanotomy) insertion of small ventilation tube introduced into inferior segment of tympanic membrane surgical opening allows drainage and ventillation of middle ear tubes removed when ear heals
myringoplasty(tympanoplasty) surgical repair of tympanic membrane with tissue graft
Created by: drw5