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ANS 214L Lab 5

Central Nervous System

cephalo-, crani- head
cerebro-, encephalo- brain
neur- nerve
optic-, opt- eye
ot-, auri- ear
gray matter contains the cell bodies, nuclei and dendrites of the nerve cells (neurons), along with unmyelinated axons, forms the cortex over the cerebrum as well as deeper masses known as nuclei which are surrounded by white matter
white matter contains high concentrations of myelinated axons
three parts of the brain cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem
ventricles four internal chambers which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
meninges connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, and lie between the nervous tissue and bones
cerebrum responsible for higher mental functions, contains both gray matter and white matter, divided into two hemispheres, contains paired lobes
gyri thick folds
sucli grooves
cerebral lobes frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, insula
frontal lobe responsible for voluntary motor control, reasoning, planning, emotions, social judgement
parietal lobe perceives sensations from skin, muscles, tendons, and joint receptors
temporal lobe contains auditory centers to receive signals from the ears, important in memory, damage to this area may result in amnesia
occipital lobe responsible for vision and eye coordination
insula integrates sensory information from viscera, role in taste and language function, located in middle of brain where all loves meet, cannot be seen externally
corpus callosum the band of nervous tissue that connects the two halves of the cerebrum
thalamus a relay center for all sensory information (except smell) going to the cerebrum, the walls of the third ventricle make up the thalamus, which is filled with cerebral spinal fluid
hypothalamus regulates thirst and hunger, body temperature, sleep and wakefulness, sexual arousal, anger, fear, pain and pleasure, produces ADH oxytocin, and the releasing and inhibitory hormones that regulate the pituitary
pituitary also known as the hypophysis, comprised of anterior and posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary produces and releases (secretes) somatotrpin (GH), TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, and prolactin, release of these hormones is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, which are carried to the anterior pituitary
hypthalamo-hypophyseal portal system blood system between hypothalamus and pituitary
posterior pituitary releases (excretes) ADH and oxytocin, hormones produced by the hypothalamus
optic chiasm point at which the optic nerves crossover on the way to the brain from the eyes
limbic system part of the forebrain that processes olfactory information, which may be its only function in lower vertebrates, also the neural basis of emotional states (in combination with the hypothalamus) in higher vertebrates
cerebellum second largest part of the brain, consists of both gray and white matter (arbor vitae), receives input from joint, tendon, and muscle receptors and is responsible for coordination of movement
brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
midbrain short segment to the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and forebrain
pons contains two respiratory centers and is a pathway for nerve fibers passing through from the brain to the spinal cord
medulla oblongata responsible for motor control, contains axons for some cranial nerves, also contains several regulatory centers, namely vasomotor center, cardioinhibitory center, respiratory center
vasomotor center responsible for the contraction or dilation of blood vessels
cardioinhibitory center responsible for parasympathetic (involuntary) innervation of the heart, regulates heart rate
respiratory center works with the two respiratory centers in the pons
cranial nerves nerves that run directly to the brain rather than through the spinal cord, comprised of twelve pairs of nerves designated by Roman numerals
mixed nerves most nerves are this meaning they have both sensory and motor functions, examples are vagus nerve and optic nerve
spinal nerves comprised of 31 pairs of nerves in humans, all are mixed nerves, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Created by: adekkers



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