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ANS 214L Lab 1

Internal Anatomy of the Pig

QuestionAnswer
brachi- arm
cauda- tail
cervic- neck
corpus body
cyst- bladder or sac
glosso- tongue
gusta- taste
hepa- liver
nas-,rhin- nose
ped,pod foot
pharyngo-,fauci-,laryngo- throat
-plasty plastic surgery
salivary glands parotid, submaxillary, sublingual
parotid salivary glands located below the ears
submaxillary salivary glands located at the base of the jaw on the medial edge
sublingual salivary glands located on either side, below the tongue
saliva contains mucin, bicarbonate, water, and in many species, salivary amylase
mucin a slippery glycoprotein that functions in lubrication
bicarbonate functions to keep the mout pH near neutrality
salivary amylase an enzyme that breaks down starch to maltose, a disaccharide, initiates starch digestion
buccal cavity the empty space in the mouth
hard palate roof of the mouth with underlying bone
soft palate the softer tissue posterior to the hard palate
pharynx the open space behind teh buccal cavity, begins at the soft palate and ends at the juncture of larynx and esophagus, joint passageway for both food/drink
larynx part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and trachea, contains the vocal chords
thyroid cartilage forms the anterior wall of the larynx and functions to protect the vocal chords
epiglottis curled inside the opening into the trachea, blocks the larynx during swallowing
trachea transports air from larynx to bronchi, cartilage rings to hold it open for air passage
esophagus parrallels the trachea and is dorsal to it, carries ingested food from the pharynx to the stomach
heart located caudally to the laryns and ventrally to the lungs
diaphragm skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity, which is anterior, from the abdominal cavity, which is posterior, contraction of this increases size of the thoracic cavity
liver posterior to the diaphragm, major metabolic processing unit that maintains levels of nutrients in the blood, secretes bile for digestion
gall bladder stores and excretes biloe
stomach produces hydrochloric acid (HCL) and pepsinogen to begin the initial breakdown of proteins
greater omentum lacey in appearance, part of the immune system, leukocyte production occurs here
spleen largest lymphatic organ in the body (part of the immune system) and thus functions as a site for production of lymphocytes, it removes old, worn red blood cells, recycling the components for other uses in the body
pancreas found in the duodenal loop of the small intestine, (endocrine functions) secretes hormones insulin and glucagon, (exocrine functions) and secretes digestive enzymes, such as the proenzymes typsinogen and chymotripsinogen
small intestine duodenum, jejunum, and ileun
duodenum receives chyme from the stomach, filled with brunner's glands which produce large amounts of bicarbonte to neutralize the highly acidic chyme from the stomach, receives bile from the gall bladder, and enzymes secreted by the pancreas
jejunum longest portion, digestion of protein and carbohydrates is fairly complete here, absorption of momosaccharides, amino acids, calcium, and iron
ileum absorption of water, electrolytes, bile salts, and vitamin b12, connects to the large intestine
hepatic portal system network of blood vessels that collects blood from the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, delivers blood which will be high in absorbed nutrients after a meal, directrly to the liver
large intestine cecum, colon, and rectum
cecum "blind sac", fermentation of residual starch and some cellulose, and absorption of fermentation products and water occur here
colon longest part of the large intestine, fermentation and absorption of residual starch and cellulose
rectum last part of large intestine, formation of characteristic shape of droppings found in many animals
anus external opening of digestive tract
kidneys removal of waste products from blood and regulation of blood volume and body pH
urinary bladder stores urine in mammals
Created by: adekkers