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A & P - intro

What is anatomy? The study of the human structure and their relationship to one another.
What is physiology? The study of the functions of the various parts of the human body.
Why are anatomy and physiology inseparable? Function always reflects structure.
Chemical? Atoms and molecules.
Cellular? Cells and their organelles.
Tissue? Groups of similar cells.
Organ? Contains two or more types of tissues.
Organ system? Organs that work closely together.
Organismal? All organ systems.
Integumentary System? Hair, skin, nails.
Skeletal system? Bones and joints.
Muscular system? Skeletal muscles.
Nervous system? Brain, spinal cord, nerves.
Endocrine system? Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Ovary, Testis.
Cardiovascular system? Heart, blood vessels.
Lymphatic system? Red bone marrow, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph nodes.
Respiratory system? Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus, Lung.
Digestive system? Oral cavity, Esophagus, Liver, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Rectum, Anus.
Urinary system? Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra.
Male reproductive system? Prostate gland, Penis, Testis, Ductus deferens, Scrotum.
Female reproductive system? Mammary glands, Ovary, Uterus, Uterine tube, Vagina.
What do cells depend on to meet their survival needs? Organ systems.
How do organ systems work to perform necessary life functions? Co-operatively.
Maintaining boundaries between? Internal and external environments eg. plasma membranes, skin.
Movement (contractility)? Of moving parts (skeletal muscle) and of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
Responsiveness/Irritability/adaptation? Ability to sense and respond to stimuli eg. withdrawal reflex, control breathing rate.
Digestion? Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, absorption of simple molecules into blood.
Metabolism - all chemical reactions that occur in body cells? Catabolism and anabolism.
Excretion - the removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion? Urea, carbon dioxide, faeces.
Reproduction? Cellular division for growth and repair and production of offspring.
Growth? Increase in size of the body part or of organism.
Nutrients? Chemical for energy and cell building. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins.
Oxygen? Essential for energy release (ATP production)
Water? Most abundant chemical in the body and site of chemical reactions.
Normal body temperature? Affects rate of chemical reactions.
Appropriate atmospheric pressure? For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.
Created by: Leithj