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AP Gov.Po. Chapter 2

AP Governement Chapter Two

Constitution A nations basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certian guarantees to citizens. Constitutons can be either written or unwritten.
Decleration of Independence The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Natural Rights Rights inherent in human beings not dependent on governments which include life liberty & property The concept of natural rights was central to English phiosopher John Lockes theories about government & was widely accepted among Americas founding fathers
Consent of the Governed The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
Limited Government The idea that certian restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
Articles of Confederation The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
Shays' Rebellion A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmersled by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
U.S Constitution The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Factions Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No 10 Todays parties or interest groups r what Madison had in mind when he warned of instability in government caused by factions
New Jersey Plan The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
Virgina Plan The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
Connecticut Compromise The compromise reached @ the Constitutional Convention that established 2 houses of Congress the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, & the Senate, in which each state has 2 representatives.
Writ of Habeas Corpus A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
Separation of Powers A featureof the Constitution that requires each of the three brances of government-executive, legislative, and judicial-to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions.
Checks and Balances Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions contiunally constrain one another's activities.
Republic A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Federalists Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
Anti-Federalists Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
Federalsit Papers A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton. John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedome of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants' rights.
Equal Rights Amendment Constitutional amendment pased by Congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not b denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex" The amendment failed 2 acquire necessary support from 3/4 of state legislatures
Marbury v. Madison The 1803case in which C.J. JohnMarshall & his associates 1st asserted the right of the S.C. 2 determine meaning of the USConstitution The decision established the Courts power of judicial review over acts of Congress in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789
Judicial Review The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution. Judicial review was establish by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury v. Madison.