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supralaryngeal mus.

action & innervation of supralaryngeal muscles

musclecranial nervemuscle action
velopharyngeal sphincter X Vagus protrudes and elevates pharyngeal wall--contributes to velopharyngeal closure
salpingopharyngeus pharyngeal plexus innervated by X & XI elevates pharynx
stylopharyngeus IX glossopharyngeal elevates & opens pharynx, esp. during swallowing
cricopharyngeal m. pharyngeal plexus innervated by X & XI seals/opens esophagus (must relax to swallow)
Superior, middle & Inferior pharyngeal constrictors pharyngeal plexus innervated by X & XI narrows pharynx
musculus uvulae pharyngeal plexus innervated by X & XI raises velum in superior & posterior direction, shortens/bunches uvula
levator veli palatini pharyngeal plexus innervated by X & XI raises velum
tensor veli palatini V trigeminal tenses velum (contributes to velopharyngeal closure)
superior longitudinal muscle XII hypoglossal raises tip of tongue
Inferior longitudinal muscle XII hypoglossal tip of tongue down
hyoglossus XII hypoglossal retracts or depresses tongue, elevates hyoid
chondroglossus XII hypoglossal depresses tongue
vertical lingual m. XII hypoglossal flattens and depresses tongue
genioglossus XII hypoglossal depresses, flattens tongue
anterior genioglossus XII hypoglossal retracts tongue tip
posterior genioglossus XII hypoglossal protrudes tongue
palatoglossus X Vagus elevates rear of tongue, pulls tongue back to groove, depresses velum forms anterior faucial pillar
digastric V trigeminal & VII facial depresses mandible or elevates hyoid
geniohyoid XII hypoglossal depresses mandible or elevates hyoid
mylohyoid V trigeminal depresses the mandible or elevates the hyoid
platysma VII facial depresses mandible, corner of mouth & wrinkles skin of neck and chin
lateral pterygoids V trigeminal protrudes mandible, also moves laterally, implicated in bruxism
medial pterygoids V trigeminal raises & protrudes mandible, also moves laterally
temporalis V trigeminal raises & retracts mandible, implicated in bruxism & teeth clenching, maintains rest position of jaw when upright
masseter V trigeminal strongest craniomandibular muscle, elevates mandible against maxilla, moves mandible laterally
mentalis VII facial elevates & wrinkles chin, protrudes lower lip
levator labii superior VII facial elevates upper lip
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi VII facial elevates upper lip, flares nostril
zygomatic minor VII facial elevates upper lip & dilates mouth opening
levator anguli oris VII facial elevates angle of upper lip--up and medially
zygomatic major VII facial draws corner of mouth up and back ("smile muscle")
depressor anguli oris VII facial depresses & retracts lower lip ("triangular muscle"), depresses corners of mouth
depressor labii inferior VII facial depresses lower lip
palatopharyngeus pharyngeal plexus from X & XI depresses velum or elevates larynx & pharynx, narrows faucial isthmus (forms post. faucial pillar)
transverse muscles XII hypoglossal narrows & lengthens, lifts sides of tongue
orbicularis oris VII facial puckers/closes mouth
risorius VII facial retracts corners of mouth
buccinator VII facial flattens cheek
styloglossus XII hypoglossal retracts tongue
Created by: kashamustin