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AP II Saladin

Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Quiz

QuestionAnswer
In general, acidosis is likely to cause the following effects, except hypercalcemia
All of these hormones can affect sodium homeostasis by either increasing or decreasing its reabsorption at the kidney except ADH
The maintenance of homeostasis is least critical for which of the following electrolytes? phosphates
In a normal person who is sedentary during the day, more water would be lost per day through cutaneous transpiration than through sweat. True
Human kidneys do not compensate well for a low fluid intake True
Most of the water within our body is held in the extracellular areas such as the bloodstream False
Fluid is continuously exchanged between compartments through capillary walls and plasma membranes. True
Which of the following estimates of the average amount of water loss is incorrect? breath—30 ml/day
Cutaneous transpiration is also called sweat False
Which of the following causes the long-term inhibition of thirst? blood rehydration
Which of the following is least likely to stimulate the thirst center in the hypothalamus? blood rehydration
Renal failure may cause decreased blood osmolarity
The most common form of fluid sequestration is edema..
A deficiency of potassium is called hypokalemia.
The primary effects of aldosterone on the kidney are that the urine contains less NaCl, more potassium, and has a lower pH. True
Which hormone mimics the effect of aldosterone and causes women to retain water during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle? estrogen
Which of the following would not stimulate aldosterone release? hypernatremia
Hyperkalemia causes nerve and muscle cells to be partially depolarized and can produce cardiac arrest. True
Because cells require a high cytoplasmic concentration of phosphate ions, they must maintain a very low intracellular calcium concentration to prevent crystal formation. True
Hypocalcemia causes decreased sodium permeability of the plasma membrane and muscle weakness. False
Homeostasis maintains a normal blood and tissue fluid pH of 7.35 to 7.45. True
The physiological buffer system is faster and more powerful than the chemical buffer system. False
The bicarbonate buffer system neutralizes acid, but is not effective on strong bases. True
Which buffer system accounts for three-quarters of all the chemical buffering of the body fluids? The protein buffer system accounts for three-quarters of all of the chemical buffering of the body fluids.
The kidneys can neutralize more acids or bases than either the respiratory system or the chemical buffers. (blank)
Which of the following is true? Respiratory alkalosis results from an alveolar ventilation rate that is below the body's rate of CO2 production
Urine usually has a pH of 5 to 6.
The use of 0.9% saline may cause all of the following problems except The skeleton is unaffected by the administration of normal saline, but all the rest are possible.
Hyperalimentation means a patient is being provided with complete I.V. nutritional support, including an amino acid mixture, vitamins, electrolytes, glucose, and, on alternate days, a fat emulsion. True
This hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, will stimulate the collecting ducts and the distal convoluted tubules to retain more water: ADH
Hypovolemia can be caused by all of the following except aldosterone hypersecretion
Edema can result from all of these conditions except: increased exercise
Which condition would be most likely to stimulate aldosterone secretion? hyponatremia
This condition can cause hypokalemia: Addison disease
Deficiency of this mineral is a cause of tetany: calcium
All of these mechanisms can directly help to maintain pH homeostasis except: B) phosphate buffers C) pulmonary ventilation D) tubular secretion E) bicarbonate system
This condition may be caused by hyperventilation respiratory alkalosis
Hyperkalemia can be caused by: too little aldosterone
This hormone promotes phosphate excretion parathyroid hormone
Created by: littlemina74