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A&P Chapter5: Tissue

Has free (apical) surface and basement membrane. Provides protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion. Cover body surface, cover and line organs, compose glands. lack blood vessels, cell divide, cells tightly packed Epithelium Tissues
Bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, framework, fight infection, repair tissue damaged. distributed throughout the body. good blood supply, cells are farther apart, has extracellular matrix between cells. Cells divide easy. Connective Tissues
Provides movements. Attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, and the heart. Able to contract in response to specific stimuli Muscle Tissues
Transmit impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception. Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Cells communicate with each other and other body parts Nervous Tissues
Site of union between cells Intercellular Junction
Specialized junction between cells, which serves as a "spot weld". Desmosome
a type of intercellular junction in which the membranes of adjacent cells converge and fuse. It closes the space between cells. Typically join cells that form sheetlike layers. Tight Junction
A type of intercellular junction that link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and allow ions, nutrients, and other small molecules to move between them. Gap Junctions
layer of nonliving material that anchors epithelial tissue to the underlying connective tissue Basement membrane
A single layer of thing, flattened cells; cells fit tightly together, nuclei are broad and thin; damaged easily. Osmosis, filtration, diffusion, and cover surfaces. Form the wall of capillaries, lines the alveoli, inside of blood and lymph vessels, Simple Squamous Epithelium
a single layer of cube-shaped cells; have centrally located, spherical nuclei. Secretion, absorption. Surface of ovaries, linings of kidney tubules and ducts of certain glands (pancreas, liver, and salivary glands) Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Single elongated cells; nuclei at same level near BM. Ciliated/nonciliated. Microville on free surfaces, increase surface area being exposed to substance absorption. Have goblet cell. Protection, secretion, absorption. Linings of uterus, stomach intestine Simple Columnar Epithelium
Elongated cells. Appeared layer, but is not due to nuclei on different levels. Cell shape varies, all reach BM but some do not reach FS. Have goblet cells. Cilia on FS. Protection, secretion, movement of mucus/substance. Linings of respirator passages Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Secret a protective fluid called mucus on the FS. Located scatter throughout the tissue. Cilia sweep away the mucus. Name and tissues where it is found? Globet Cells, found in Pseudostratified Columnar and Simple Columnar Epithelium
Many layers of cells, making tissue thick. FS's cells are flattened and old; deeper layers (cell divide) are cuboidal or columnar. Some have keratin. Provides protection. Outer layer of skin, linings of oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Found on FS of the Stratified Squamous Epithelium. A protein. Produces a covering of dry, tough, protective material that prevents water/substance from leaving the underlying tissues while blocking chemical from entering. Keratin "Keratinization"
Stratified Squamous Epithelium lines the oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, and anal canal. In these parts, the tissue stays soft and moist, cells on FS remains alive. Why? Is not Keratinzed. Have no Keratin
2 to 3 layers of cube-shaped cells. Provides protection. Linings of the larger ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Several layers of cells. Top layer are elongated cells, whereas the basal layers consist of cube-shaped cells. Provides protection, and secretion. Part of the male urethra and parts of the pharynx Stratified Columnar Epithelium
layers of cube/elongated cells. organs contract, tissue have layers of cuboidal cells; when distended, tissue stretch, physical relationship btw cells change, have few layers of cells. Distensibility, protection. Lining of bladder/ureters/part of urethra. Transitional Epithelium
Composed of cells specialized to produce and secret substances into ducts or into body fluids. Unicellular/multicellular. Secretion. Salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands. Glandular Epithelium
gland that secretes it products into a duct or onto a body surface Exocrine gland
gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood Endocrine Gland
A structure whose cells remain intact while secreting. Glands that release fluid products by exocytosis merocrine gland
type of gland whose secretions have parts of secretory cells. The glands that lose small portions of their glandular cell bodies during secretion Apocrine Gland
Gland whose secretion contains entire secretory cells. Glands that release entire cells. Holocrine Gland
fibers and ground substance among the connective tissue cells. Ground substance has nonfibrous protein/molecules/fluid. Extracellular Matrix
Fixed Cells and Macrophages (wandering cells) Two types of cells in Connective Tissues
cells that reside in the specific connective tissue type for an extended period Fixed Cells
Cells that move through and appear in the connective tissues temporarily, usually in response to an injury or infection Macrophages or wandering cells
The most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue. It produces fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues Fibroblast
Large phagocytic cell (eat solid items). Originated from white blood cells. Usually attached to fibers, but can detach and move about. Specialized to carry on the phagocytosis. Clear foreign objects from tissues, fight against infection. Macrophage (Histocytes)
Cell to which antibodies, formed in response to allergens attach, bursting the cell and releasing allergy mediator. Near blood vessels. Release heparin and histamine. Mast Cell
A compound that prevents blood clothing. Released by the Mast Cells. Heparin
a substance that promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies. Released by Mast Cells Histamine
Fibroblasts produce three types of connective tissue. collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.
Most abundant types of fibroblasts collagenous fibers and elastic fibers
Protein in the white fibers of the connective tissues and in the bone matrix. The major structural protein of the body Collagen
thick threads of the protein collagen. fibers grouped in long, parallel bundles; flexible but only slightly elastic. great tensile strength (can resist pulling force). important components of body parts that hold structures together:ligaments/tendons Collagenous fibers
connects bones to bones ligament
connect muscles to bone tendons
Tissue that have abundant collagenous fibers. tissue appears white; sometimes called white fibers dense connective tissue
has sparse or limited collagenous fibers. Loose connective tissue
composed of springlike protein elastin. fibers branch, forming complex networks in tissues. weaker than coll fibers, but elastic. fibers are common in stretchy body parts:vocal cords, air passage. yellow fibers. bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin Elastic Fibers
protein that comprises the yellow, elastic fibers of connective tissue elastin
are thin collagenous fibers. highly branched and form delicate supporting networks in tissues. Reticular fibers
two major categories of connective tissue connective tissue proper and specialized connective tissues
includes loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, reticular) and dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic) Connective tissue proper
includes cartilage, bones, and blood Specialized connective tissues
forms delicate, thin membranes. fibroblasts cells are located distance apart, separated be a gel-like ground substance that contains many coll fibers and elastic fibers. binds organs, holds tissue fluid. beneath skin, btw muscle, beneath epithelial tissue Areolar Connective Tissue
protects, insulates, and stores fat. beneath skin, around kidneys, behind eyeballs, on surface of heart; cushion joints and some organs (kidneys). insulates beneath the skin, and stores energy in fat molecules. Adipose Connective Tissue
developed when adipocytes store fat in droplets in their cytoplasm. as they accumulate fat, they enlarge, and the nuclei are pushed to the side. adipocytes become so abundant that they crowd out other cell, forming this tissue Adipose Connective Tissue 'formation"
Provide support. found in walls of the liver, spleen, and lymphatic organs. composed of thin, coll fibers in a 3-D network. Reticular Connective Tissue
binds body parts. Found in tendons and ligaments. have many closely packed-thick coll fibers; network of elastic fibers; a few cell, mostly fibroblasts. coll fibers are strong, able to stand pulling force. blood supply is poor, slowing tissue repair. Dense Regular Connective Tissue
sustains tissue tension. found in the dermis (inner skin layer). fibers are thicker, interwoven, and more randomly organized; allowing to sustain tension from different directions Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Provides Elastic quality; found in walls of arteries and airways,btw bones of the spinal column; some portion of the heart. many consists of yellow, elastic fibers in parallel strands or in branching networks Elastic Connective Tissue
is a rigid connective tissue. provides support, frameworks, attachment; protects underlying tissues, forms structural models for many developing bones. lacks a direct blood supply, but get nutrients from the nearby pericondrium's blood vessel by diffusion Cartilage Tissue
is abundant and is largely composed of coll fibers embedded in gel-like ground substance. ground substance is rich in protein polysaacharide complex and contains water. Cartilage Extracellular Matrix
Cartilage Cells occupy small chambers called lacunae and lie completely within the extracellular matrix. Chondrocytes
a cartilaginous structure is enclosed in a covering of connective tissue called. has blood-vess, giving nutrients to cartilage cell by diffusion, aided by water in the extr-matrix. lack of direct blood cause slow healing of cart., cell can't divide much. perichondrium
Three types of cartilage are distinguished by their different types of extracellular matrix. Hyaline Cartilage, Elastic Cartilage, and Fibrocartilage
cells in solid-gel matrix. supports/protects/provides framework. Found in ends of bones, nose, and rings in wall of respiratory passages. common type.has fine coll fibers in its extr-matrix and looks white glass. important in development/growth of bones. Hyaline Cartilage
cells in solid-gel matrix. supports, protects, provides flexible framework. framework of external ear and part of larynx. more flexible than hyaline cart cause extr-matrix has a dense network of elastic fibers. Elastic Cartilage
Cells in solid-gel matrix. supports, protects, provide framework. forms intervertebral discs between bones of the spinal column, parts of pelvic girdle, and knees. tough tissue, has many coll fibers. a shock absorber for structures subjected to pressure. Fibrocartilage
cells in sold matrix. supports, protects, provides framework. Bones of skeleton, middle ear. most rigid connective tissue due to middle salts btw cell. extra-matrix has abundant coll fibers, which are flexible and reinforce the mineral components of bone. Bone
internally support body structures. attachment for muscles. contains red marrow, which forms blood cells. stores and release inorganic chemicals. Bone
bone forming-cell; bone cell osteoblasts
layer of matrix in bone tissue lamellae
bone matrix is deposited by osteoblasts in thin layers of lamellae, forming concentric patterns around capill located within tiny longitudinal tubes called central(haversian) canals. Osteoblasts in launae surrounded by matrix, they are called osteocytes. Bone Cell formation?
in a bone, the osteocytes and layers of extra-matrix (concentrically clustered around a central canal) form a cylinder-shaped called... Osteon
cells and platelets in fluid matrix called plasma. transports gases, defends against disease, clotting. Found throughout the body in a closed system of blood vessels and heart chambers. Blood
Cells that transports gases. only type of cells that function entirely in the blood vessels. Red blood cell
Cells that fight infection; cells migrate from the blood through capillary walls to connective tissues, where they carry on their major activities. usually reside in the connective tissues until they die White Blood Cell
Cells that are involved in blood clotting Platelets
thin structures that are usually composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissues, lining body cavities and covering body surfaces. Epithelial Membranes
Three types of epithelial Membranes serous membrane, mucous membrane, and cutaneous
line the body cavities that do not open to the outside and reduce friction btw the organs and cavity walls. forms inner lining of the thorax and abdomen. have a layer of simple squa epit and thin layer of loose conn tissue. cell secrete serous fluid. serous membrane
lines the cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body (oral/nasal, tubes of digestive/respiratory/urinary/reproductive systems). consists of epit overlying a layer of loose conn tissue. yet, type of epith varies with the location of membrane Mucous Membrane
more commonly called skin. part of the integumentary system. Cutaneous membrane
A type of membrane composed entirely of connective tissues is this. It lines joints. synovial membrane.
cells that comprise of muscle tissues because they are elongated. muscle fibers
long, threadlike cells, striated, many nuclei. provides voluntary movements of skeletal parts. muscles usually attached to bones. moves the head, trunk, and limbs. Skeletal muscle Tissue
shorter cells, single-centrally located nucleus, spindle shaped. involuntary movements of internal organs. found in the walls of hollow internal organs (stomach, intestine, bladder, uterus, blood vessels). lacks striations. Smooth Muscle Tissue
Cells are striated and branched, joined end-to-end and interconnected in complex network. cell has single nucleus. cell touching cell is a specialized intercellular junction called intercalated disc. involuntarily. heart movement, located in heart muscle Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Cell with cytoplasmic extensions. found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves. basic cell called neurons. function: sensory reception and conduction of nerve impulses. Nervous Tissue
nervous tissue's cell that support and bind the components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels. also play a role in cell-to-cell communications. Neuroglia
neurons sense certain types of changes in their surroundings and respond to it by transmitting nerve impulses along cellular process called __ to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Axons
Created by: teenaxiong