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AP II Saladin

The Respiratory System

Main Functions of the Respiratory System Its an organ system the rhythmically takes in air and expels it from the body, thereby
Main Functions of the Respiratory System It provides oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the blood and air.
Main Functions of the Respiratory System It serves for speech and other vocalizations such as crying and laughing.
Main Functions of the Respiratory System It provides the sense of smell
Main Functions of the Respiratory System By eliminating CO2, it helps control the pH of the body fluids.Therefore if the respiratory system does not keep pace with the rate of CO2
Main Functions of the Respiratory System The lungs carry out a step in the synthesis of a vasoconstrictor called Angiotensin II,
Main Functions of the Respiratory System Breathing creates pressure gradients b/w the thorax and abdomen that permit the flow
Two Main Divisions of the Respiratory System Conducting Division & Respiratory Division
Conducting Division This division consists of those passages that serve only for airflow – basically from the
Respiratory Division This division consists of the alveoli and other distal gas exchange areas.
The main functions of the nose a)Warms, cleanses and humidifies inhaled air. b)Detects odors in the airstream. c)Serves as a resonationg chamber that amplifies the voice.
Basic Anatomy of the Nose It extends from a pair of anterior openings called the nostrils or anterior (external)
Basic Anatomy of the Nose The facial part of the nose is shaped by bone and hyaline cartilage
The nasal cavity This is the internal chamber of the nose which is divided into right and left halves
Three parts to the nasal septum (a) Superior Part – formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. (b) Inferior Part – formed by the vomer (c) Anterior Part – formed by the septal cartilage
ethmoid and sphenoid bones compose the roof of the nasal cavity and the palate
nasal cavity The nasal cavity begins with a small dilated chamber called the vestibule, just inside the nostril.
nasal cavity This space is lined w/ stratified squamous epithelium and has stiff guard hairs
nasal cavity These folds of tissue are the superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae.
nasal cavity Odors are detected by sensory cells in the olfactory mucosa – a small patch of
Nasal Cavity Lining the rest of the nasal cavity and extending deep into the lungs is a psuedostratified respiratory mucosa. This is a nonsensory epithelium having two types of cells: Goblet & Ciliated Cells
Goblet cells These produce mucus.
Ciliated cells In the nose, these cilia drive the mucus toward the posterior nares and into the
Pharynx The pharynx is a muscular funnel extending about 13 cm from the choanae to the
Pharynx has three main regions Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx This i)This part lies posterior to the choanae and dorsal to the soft palate. ii)It receives the auditory tubes from the middle ears and contains the pharyngeal tonsil. iii)Lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. iv)The nasaopharynx passes only
Oropharynx ii)It contains the palatine and lingual tonsils. iii)Lined by stratified squamous epithelium. iv)Passes air, food and drink.
Laryngopharynx The esophagus begins at this point. Lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Passes air, food and drink.
Larynx The larynx (voicebox) is a cartilaginous chamber about 4 cm long.
Main functions of the larynx To keep food and drink out of the airway. / Sound production.
Epiglottis A flap of tissue which guards the superior opening of the larynx.
Epiglottis During swallowing, extrinsic muscles of the larynx pull the larynx upward toward
Basic framework of the larynx consists of nine cartilages i)Epiglottic Cartilage ii)Thyroid Cartilage iii)Cricoid Cartilage iv)Arytenoid Cartilages (one pair) v)Corniculate Cartilages (one pair) vi)Cuneiform Cartilages (one pair)
Epiglottic Cartilage This is the most superior cartilage. It’s a spoon shaped supportive plate in the epiglottis.
Thyroid Cartilage This is the largest cartilage and has a sheildlike shape. It broadly covers the anterior/lateral aspects of the larynx. The laryngeal prominence is the anterior peak of the thyroid cartilage – also called the Adam’s apple.
Cricoid Cartilage Found inferior to the thyroid cartilage. It connects the larynx to the trachea.
Arytenoid Cartilages (one pair) This pair of cartilages is found posterior to the thyroid cartilage. These cartilages function in speech.
Corniculate Cartilages (one pair) These cartilages are found attached to the upper ends of the arytenoid cartilages. These cartilages function in speech (along with the arytenoids cartilages).
Cuneiform Cartilages (one pair) This pair of cartilages support the soft tissues b/w the arytenoids cartilages and epiglottis.
Ligaments of the larynx A group of fibrous ligaments bind the cartilages of the larynx together and to adjacent structures in the neck.
Extrinsic Ligaments These are ligaments which link the larynx to other organs, namely: a. Thyrohyoid ligament b. Crichotracheal ligament
Thyrohyoid ligament Found superiorly, it’s a broad sheet that joins the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid
Crichotracheal ligament Found inferiorly, this ligament joins the cricoid cartilage to the trachea.
Instrinsic Ligaments They support the vestibular folds and vocal cords.
Extrinsic muscles These connect the larynx to the hyoid bone and elevate the larynx during swallowing.
Intrinsic muscles These muscles control the vocal cords by pulling on the corniculate and arytenoids cartilages, causing the cartilages to pivot. Depending on their direction of rotation, the arytenoid cartilages abduct or adduct the vocal cords. Air forced b/w the addu
Folds of the Larynx There are two folds found on each side of the interior wall of the larynx. They run from the thyroid cartilage in front to the arythenoid cartilages in the back.
Vestibular Folds This is the superior pair. They close the glottis during swallowing but play no role in speech.
Vocal Folds (vocal cords) a. Inferior pair of folds. b. Produce sound when air passes through them. c. Contain vocal ligaments and covered w/ stratified squamous epithelium. d. Vocal folds & opening b/w them are glottis
Trachea The trachea (windpipe) is a rigid tube about 12 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter.
Basic anatomy of the trachea It lies anterior to the esophagus.
Basic anatomy of the trachea It is supported by 16 to 20 C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. The posterior part of the trachea has open C rings. These openings are spanned by the trachealis muscles. This opening in the cartilage allows for the esophagus to expand, as swallowed foo
Basic anatomy of the trachea The posterior part of the trachea has open C rings. These openings are spanned by
Basic anatomy of the trachea The inner lining of the trachea is a pseudostratified columnar epithelium. This
Basic anatomy of the trachea The CT beneath the tracheal epithelium has lymphatic nodules, mucous and serious glands and the tracheal cartilages.
Basic anatomy of the trachea The adventia is the outermost layer of the trachea. It is composed of fibrous CT that
Basic anatomy of the trachea At its inferior end, the trachea forks into right and left primary bronchi. The lowermost
The Lungs Each lung is a conical organ with a broad concave base resting on the diaphragm and a blunt peak called the apex projecting slightly above the clavicle.
Costal surface This is the broad surface that is pressed against the rib cage.
Mediastinal Surface The smaller concave surface that faces medially. This surface has a slit called the
Right Lung Is shorter than the left lung because the liver rises higher on the right.
Right Lung The right lung has three lobes – superior, middle and inferior – which are separated by two fissures.
Left Lung Although taller, this lung is more narrow than the right lung because the heart tilts toward the left and occupies more space on this side of the mediastinum.
Left Lung Has only a superior and inferior lobe and a single fissure.
Definition of the bronchial tree A highly branched system of air tubes extending from the primary bronchus to about 65, 000 terminal bronchioles.
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Two primary bronchi arise from the trachea at the level of the angle of the sternum.
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Each secondary bronchus divides into tertiary bronchi. The part of the lung supplied
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Bronchioles are continuations of the airway that lack supportive cartilage and are
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Each bronchiole divides into 50 to 80 terminal bronchioles – the final branches of the
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Each terminal bronchiole gives off two or more smaller respiratory bronchioles,
Basic Anatomy of the Bronchial Tree Each respiratory bronchiole divides into 2 to 10 elongated, thin walled passages called alveolar ducts, which have alveoli along their walls. These ducts have nonciliated simple squamous epithelium. The ducts end in alveolar sacs, which are grapelike c
Alveoli An alveolus is a simple pouch about 0.2 to 0.5 mm in diameter.
Squamous (type I) Alveolar Cells Thin broad cells that cover about 95% of the alveolar surface.
Squamous (type I) Alveolar Cells Their thinness allows for rapid gas diffusion b/w the alveolus and bloodstream.
Great (type II) Alveolar Cells Cuboidal cells that cover 5 % of the alveolar surface. They outnumber the
Great (type II) Alveolar Cells Function Secrete pulmonary surfactant – which is a mixture of phospholip protein that coats the alveoli/smallest bronchioles and prevents from collapsing when one exhales. Without surfactant, the walls deflating alveolus would cling together like sheets of wet
Alveolar Macrophages The most numerous off all lung cells.
Respiratory Membrane The barrier b/w the alveolar air and the blood.
Respiratory Membrane This membrane consists of the squamous alveolar cell, the squamous endothelial cell
Neural Control of Breathing The hearbeat and breathing are the two most obvious rhythmic processes in the body.
Neural Control of Breathing The heart has an internal pacemaker and continues beating – even if all the nerves to it
Neural Control of Breathing Conversely, the lungs have no autorhythmic pacemaker cells for respiration. The
Breathing depends on repetitive stimuli from the brain Breathing stops if the nerve connections to the thoracic muscles are severed or if the
There are two reasons for this dependence on the brain Skeletal muscles (unlike cardiac muscles), can’t contact without input from the
There are two reasons for this dependence on the brain Breathing involves the organized action of many muscles and thus requires a central
Breathing is controlled at two levels of the brain a)Cerebral/Conscious Control & Involuntary/Unconscious Control
Cerebral/Conscious Control This allows us to inhale/exhale at will.
Brainstem Respiratory Centers The involuntary/unconscious control of breathing is controlled by three respiratory
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG) This is an elongated mass of neurons, extending for most of the length of the
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG) The neurons here are called inspiratory (I) neurons because their firing stops inhalation. a. Their axons decussate and descend the contralateral spinal cord and end in integrating centers of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. b. Lower motor neuro
DRG output begins weakly and builds in intensity over a period of about 2 seconds The inpiratory muscles contract w/ increasing force and we inhale.
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) This is another elongated neural network, just ventral to the DRG.
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) It consists of both I neurons and expiratory (E) neurons and is active during both
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) It shows little activity during quiet respiration but comes into play during heavy breathing such as during exercise.
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) The VRG is especially important in stimulating the abdominal/other accessory
Pneumotaxic Center This is a nucleus in the pons that regulates the shift from inspiration to expiration.
Central and Peripheral Input to the Respiratory Centers Input from the hypothalamus and limbic system enables pain and emotion to affect breathing – for example in gasping, crying and laughing.
Central Chemoreceptors These are brainstem neurons that respond to changes in the pH of the CSF.
Peripheral Chemoreceptors These are located in the aortic and carotid bodies of the large arteries above the heart.
Peripheral Chemoreceptors They respond to the concentration of O2/CO2 in the blood and to the pH of the blood.
Irritant Receptors These are nerve endings amid the epithelial cells of the airway. They respond to
Irritant Receptors They transmit signals by way of the vagus nerves to the DRG. In turn, the DRG
Voluntary Control of Breathing Voluntary control of breathing is important in singing, speaking, breath holding, etc.
Voluntary Control of Breathing This voluntary control originates from the motor cortex of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum. The output neurons send impulses down the corticospinal tracts to the integrating centers in the spinal cord, bypassing the brainstem centers
Gas Exchange and Transport analyze how O2 is obtained from inspired air and delivered to the tissues and how CO2 is removed from the tissues and released into the expired air.
Composition of Air Air consists of the following: 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.04% CO2, 0 to 4% water vapor and several minor gases such as argon, neon, helium, methane and ozone.
Dalton’s Law This law gives the total atmospheric pressure which is the sum of the contributions of the gases mentioned above.
Alveolar Gas Exchange Alveolar gas exchange is the back and forth traffic of O2 and CO2 across the respiratory membrane.
Alveolar Gas Exchange The reason that oxygen can diffuse in one direction and carbon dioxide in the other is that each gas diffused down its own pressure gradient.
Henry’s Law States that at the air-water interface for a given temperature, the amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air.
Chemical Reactions in Alveolar Gas Exchange The events of alveolar gas exchange are the opposite of systemic gas exchange.
Pressure gradients of the gases The P02 is about 104 mm Hg in the alveolar air and 40 mm Hg in the blood arriving
Membrane thickness The respiratory membrane b/w the blood and alveolar air is only 0.5 um thick – much less than the 7 to 8 um diameter of a RBC. Thus, it presents little obstacle to diffusion.
Membrane thickness in conditions such as left ventricular failure, blood pressure backs up into
Membrane area several pulmonary diseases such as emphysema, TB, lung cancer decrease the alveolar surface area and thus result in low blood P02
Ventilation-perfusion coupling The lungs have a ventilation-perfusion ratio of about 0.8 – a flow of 4.2 L of air and 5.5 L of blood per minute at rest.
Primary Organs of the Respiration System 1. Nose 2. Pharynx 3. Larynx 4. Trachea 5. Bronchi 6. Lungs
Created by: littlemina74