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joints anatomy

anatomy description of joints and movements

fibrous articulating bones fastened together by thin layer of dense connective tissue containing many collagenous fibers
syndesmosis bones bound by interosseous ligament
suture flat bones united by sutural ligament
gomphosis cone shaped process fastened in bony socket by peridontal ligament
cartilaginous articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
synchondrosis bones united by bands of hyaline cartilage
symphysis articular surfaces separated by thin layers of hyaline cartilage attached to cands of fibrocartilage
synovial articulating bones surroundedby a joint capsule of ligaments and synovial membranes; ends of articulating bones covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid
ball-and-socket ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with cup-shaped socket of another
condyloid oval-shaped head of one bone articulated with elliptical cavity of another
gliding articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved
hinge convex surfaces of one bone articulates with concave surface of another
pivot cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and fibrous tissue
saddle articlualting surfaces have both concave and convex regions surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another
flexion bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending lower limb at knee)
extension straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening lower limb at knee)
hyperextension excess extension of the parts a joint, beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position)
dorsiflexion bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin (bending the foot upward)
plantar flexion bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole (bending the foot downward)
abduction moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horixontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
adduction moving a part toward the midline (retunig the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body)
rotation moving a part around an axis (twisting the head from side to side)
cicumduction moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving hand)
supination turning the hand so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position)
pronation turning the hand so the paml is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)
eversion turning the foot so the sole faces laterally
inversion turning the foot so the sole faces medially
protraction moving a part forward (thrusting chin forward)
retraction moving a part backward (pulling chin backwards)
elevation raising a part (shrugging shoulders)
depression lowering a part (drooping shoulders)



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