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Endocrine A&P Ch 11

Endocrine System

What is the Endocrine system a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone into the bloodstream to regulate the body
what is a gland any organ producing secretions
what are the 2 types of glands Endocrine & Exocrine
Endocrine Glands - Internal Secretion function secrete directly into bloodstream, carried to entire body
Endocrine Glands - Produce Hormone substance created by the gland
Endocrine Gland - Ductless Endocrine Glands are ductless
Endocrine Glands - Produce overall body effect * hormones usually affected by specific organ or body area ex. Pituatary gland responsible for thyroid
Exocrine Glands - Secretions * HAVE DUCTS - external secretion onto body surface or organ * not secreted throughout the body * located in proximity
Exocrine Glands - Enzymes Produce Enzymes ex. enzymes in stomach, sweat, tears, etc
Exocrine Glands - Ducts secreted into a duct
Functions of Endocrine System Growth
Functions of Endocrine System Stress Response
Functions of Endocrine System Metabolism
Functions of Endocrine System Transportation ex. insulin transports glucose into cells
Functions of Endocrine System Homeostasis
Functions of Endocrine System Reproduction ex. ovulation, sperm/ova production
Functions of Endocrine System Lactation
Regulation of Endocrine System - Negative Feedback regulates negative feedback ex. if a hormone level gets too low, it stimulates a chain reaction to make more
Regulation of Endocrine System - Nervous System * Nervous System PituitaryControls the Endocrine & Exocrine Systems
Regulation of Endocrine System - Nervous System - Hypothalamus Hypothalamus is part of the nervous system
Regulation of Endocrine System - Nervous System - Hypothalamus produces what 2 hormones? Vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone or ADH) Oxytocin
Hypothalamus controls release of hormones from what gland? Pituitary
Pituitary Gland also known as Master Gland *controls some other glands
Pituitary Gland is size of grapes
Pituitary Gland is located at base of brain
Pituitary Gland has 2 divisions Anterior Pituitary Lobe Posterior Pituitary Lobe
Pituitary - Anterior - (GH) Growth Hormone for growth & develpoment * helps maintain blood sugar levels
Pituitary - Anterior - (PRL) Prolactin females- develops breast tissue & makes milk *mammary glands are exocrine*
Pituitary - Anterior -(TSH) -Thyroid Stimulating Hormone growth & secretion of Thyroid Gland
Pituitary - Anterior - (ACTH) Adrenocrticotropic Horomone growth & secretion of Adrenal CORTEX
Pituitary - Anterior - (FSH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone females- estrogen production males- sperm production
Pituitary - Anterior - (LH) Luteinizing Hormone stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum makes progesterone
Pituitary - Anterior -(ICSH) Interstitial Cell Stimulation Hormone for testerone production
Pituitary - Posterior Lobe stores hormones produced by hypothalamus **does not produce any hormones, storage only**
Pituitary - Posterior - Vasopressin Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) - maintains fluid balance
Pituitary - Posterior - Oxytocin for uterine contractions during childbirth
Pituitary - Disorders- Hyperfunctioning - Hypersecretion - GIGANTISM too much growth hormone begins in CHILDHOOD all bones too big
Pituitary Disorders - Hyperfunctioning - Hypersecretion- ACROMEGALY too much growth hormones in ADULTHOOD affects mostly cartilage - ears, nose, hands, etc.
Pituitary Disorders - Hypofunctioning - DWARFISM shortage of growth hormones in childhood
Pituitary Disorders - Hypofunctioning - Diabetes Insipidus loss in amount of ADH excess loss of H20 & electrolytes *excess thirst**
Thyroid Gland - Charcteristics butterfly shaped, behind anterior part of neck, beside larynx, over trachea
Thyroid Gland - Function Makes 3 hormones **regulates metabolism**
Thyroid Gland - Hormones - T4 Thyroxine
Thyroid Hormones - T3 Triodothyronine - increases metabolism Stimulated by TSH Iodine needed ti make T3 & T4 helps change glycogen to glucose
Thyroid Hormones - Calcitonin lowers calcium levels in blood by stimulating bones to absorb more calcium
Thyroid Disorders - Diagnosed by blood test
Thyroid Disorders - Hyperthyroidism - Graves Disease too much thyroid hormones s/s (signs/symptoms)- weight loss, feeling hot, elevated heart rate, increased blood pressure, goiter, exopthalmos (bulging eyeballs)
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism - MYXEDEMA not enough thyroid hormone, occurs in adults, weight gain, memory loss, confusion
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism - CRETINISM begins in infancy smaller in size possible mental retardation
Parathyroid Glands there are 4 size of grain of rice
Parathyroid Glands - location attached to thyroid gland
Parathyroid Glands - function regulates calcium & phosphorus levels
Parathyroid Glands - Parathormone main hormones secreted raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bones to release calcium into bloodstream
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hyperfunctioning too much calcium in blood
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hyperfunctioning - Kidney Stones calcium level in blood too high
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hyperfunctioning - Fragile Bones lack of calcium in bones
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hypofunctioning lack of parathormone calcium low in blood
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hypofunctioning - TETANY twitching, spasms in muscles
Thymus Gland **part of Endocrine & Lymphatic Systems**
Thymus Gland - Location under sternum, above heart large in infancy/childhood, gets smaller with age almost disappears in puberty
Thymus Gland - Thymosin Hormone Stimulates lymph cells to fight disease
Adrenal Glands - location top of each kidney
Adrenal Cortex secretes corticoids
Adrenal Cortex- Mineralocorticoids Alsodterone- tells kidney to reabsorb sodium
Adrenal Cortex - Glucocorticoids- Cortisol Cortisol - increases glucose in blood (blood sugar) decreases inflammation, stops pain
Adrenal Cortex - Glucocorticoids- Cortisone cortisol is converted to cortisone
Adrenal Cortex - Androgens outside of reproductive organs help make MALE sexual characteristics
Adrenal Medulla Fight or Flight response
Adrenal Medulla - Epinephrine & Norephinephrine released when a host of physiological changes are activated by a stressful event increased blood sugar, heart rate, BP, blood flow
Adrenal Glands - Disorders - Hyperfunctioning - Cushings too much cortisone/cortisol - poor healing, MOON FACE, buffalo back, abdominal edema/fat with thin extremities *caused by prolonged steroid use or too much cortisol
Adrenal Glands - Disorders - Hypofunctioning -Addison's Disease not enough cortisol/cortisone - low BP, low sugar electrolyte imbalances *bronze skin
Gonads controlled hormonally by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Gonads - Female - Ovaries Hormones are: Estrogen- primary female hormone Progesterone- steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy
Created by: danaslanaker