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Speech Hearing Sci 2

Chpaters 8 and 9

Phonetics The study of speech sounds, how we make them and how they are used.
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) One symbol for every sound in the world's languages.
Vowels Sounds that are produced with a relatively open vocal tract. Always voiced.
Dipthongs Vowel sounds that are produced as a slow gliding movement from one vowel to a second vowel.
Onlide First vowel in a dipthong.
Offglide Second vowel in a dipthong.
Stops Consonants formed by completely closing the vocal tract at some point between the vocal folds and the lips.
Bilabial stops Two lips are brought together to make the sound.
Alveolar stops The tongue tip is brought up to touch the alveolar ridge to make the sound.
Velar stops The back of the tongue is brought up to touch the velum (soft palate) to make the sounds.
Glottal stops The larynx closes and temporarily stops the air coming through the glottis to make the sound.
Stop release A brief burst of air (aspiration) which may occur after a voicless stop if it is made at the begining of a word or syllable.
Nasals formed by stopping the vocal tract and lowering the velum so that the sound goes out through the nose.
Fricatives Two parts of the vocal tract that are put close enough together to partially obstruct the airflow and produce a "hissing" kind of noise.
Affricates A combination of a stop immediately followed by a fricative.
Approximants Sounds formed by two parts of the vocal tract coming close together, but not close enough to form the "hissing" sound of the fricatives.
Sonorants All the glides, liquids, and nasals. These have a pronounced resonant quality unlike stops, fricatives, and affricates.
Articulation "to move"
Resonance Vibrating at a preferred or natural frequency.
Turbulence noise production The kind of sound in fricatives.
coarticulation the simultaneous movement of two articulators.
Acoustic Theory of Speech Production Mouth is a series of tubes.
The Odd-Quarter Wavelenth Relation A tube that is closed at one end will resonate with maximum amplitude a sound whose wavelength is 4x the length of the tube.
Quarter-Wave Resonator Tube that is open at one end and closed at another: Any tube that is resonant under certain conditions which depend on the relation between the frequency of the sound source and the length of the tube.
Wavelenth The distance traveled by a soundwave during one period of vibration.
Wavelenth (formula) =speed of sound/frequency
Speed of Sound 350 m/sec
Formants Resonating frequencies of the vocal shape.
Formant Frequencies F1, F2, F3: Tell the difference between the vowels based on how the "tube" of the mouth changes.
Formant Frequencies (formula) Fn =(2n-1)c/4l
F1 Related to tongue(vowel) height. Low F1, high vowel. High F1, low vowel.
F2 Related to front/back-ness of a vowel. Low F2, back vowel. High F2, front vowel.
The Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production The resonator is a filter because energy is passed through it in a frequency selective manner. Your vocal folds produce a sound and your vocal tract filters it out. Because of your vocal tract you get certain resonances: some dampened, some increase.
Energy Source of Fricatives Not in the vocal fold vibration but in the turbulance created at some construction.
Antiformants Loss of sound energy rather than inhancement. Filtering of fricatives is determined by these. Nasals have them as well as formants.
Nasal Murmor Really low formant (between 250-300Hz) for adult speakers in nasals.
Waveform x=time, y=amplitude. Frequency missing.
Spectrum x=frequency, y=amplitude. Time missing (shows 1 moment in time).
Spectogram x=time, y=frequency, darkness=amplitude.
Wide-Band Spectograms Smears accross a range of freqs. More stretched out, shows more. Suited to looking at formant energy because formants have a wide spread of acoustic energy. Shows glottal pulses.
Time-Frequency Trade-Off Because the wide-band doesn't have a narrow resolution with frequency it can respond quickly to signals changing in its range (better with quick events-shows them more quickly). It's better with time.
Narrow-band Spectogram A spectogram with a narrow anayzing filter. Finer resolution in frequency so you can see the harmonics. Responds slowly to brief events in time (you don't see glottal pulses).
Digital Signal Processing of an Acoustic (Analog) Signal Computer is taking a waveform and computing it into a digital form.
Analog-to-Digital (A-D) Conversion Computer samples along the waveform at various points in time.
Sampling Rate The rate (# of samples taken/unit time) at which the computer takes samples. Must take enough samples to get accurate information but not too many so it's not a waste.
Nyquist Formula Ideal sampling rate: Twice the desired bandwidth of analysis.
Front Vowels Characterized by a large separation between F1 and F2; small separation between F2 and F3.
Back Vowels Characterized by a small separation between F1 and F2; relitively large separation between F2 and F3.
High Vowels Characterized by a very small F0 and F1 difference.
Low Vowels Characterized by a large F0 and F1 difference.
Central Vowels Uniform vowels where formants are centerally placed
Dipthongs Dynamic sounds in which the articulatory shape (and thus the formant pattern) changes during the sound's production.
Stop Consonants You stop making sound before it. Stop the air. See a gap.
Silent (low-energy) Interval/Stop Gap A period of markedly reduced acoustic energy associated with the stopping of the air.
Burst Release of air in a brief interval of sound.
Formant Transitions Bends in the formant pattern that occur in the interval corresponding to the articulatory movement from the consonant to the more open vocal tract used in a vowel.
Voice Onset Time (VOT) The interval between release of the stop (the acoustic burst) and the onset of voicing
Nasal Murmur Looks like a weak low formant. has low frequency energy.
Antiformants White bands of low frequency energy in nasals.
Fricative Consonants Fine verticle lines.
Affricate consonants Look like a fricative with shorter duration.
Glide consonants Look like vowels; have gliding transitions like vowels.
Liquid consonants Characterized by steady-state formants.
Suprasegmentals Those things besides the sound segmants which make up syllables that we use in speech: stress, pitch, speaking rate, and intonation. Properties not of a single consonant or vowel, effect a whole syllable or word.
Stress Can be done by incresing the fund. frequency (raising pitch), increasing the duration (longer), or increasing intensity (louder).
Speaking Rate Reduction in acoustic values as opposed to just saying the vowels. Formants less obvious.
Speech rate of Anger Slightly faster.
Speech rate of Happiness Faster or slower.
Speech rate of Sadness Slower.
Speech rate of Fear Faster.
Speech rate of Disgust Much slower.
Pitch rate of Anger Much higher.
Pitch rate of Happiness Much higher.
Pitch rate of Sadness Slightly slower.
Pitch rate of Fear Much higher.
Pitch rate of Disgust Much lower.
Pitch range of Anger Much higher.
Pitch range of Happiness Much wider.
Pitch range of Sadness Slightly narrower.
Pitch range of Fear Slightly wider.
Pitch range of Disgust Slightly narrower.
Intensity of Anger Higher.
Intensity of Happiness Higher.
Intensity of Sadness Lower.
Intensity of Fear Same.
Intensity of Disgust Lower.
Voice Quality of Anger Breathy.
Voice Quality of Happiness Breathy.
Voice Quality of Sadness Resonant.
Voice Quality of Fear Irregular voicing quality.
Voice Quality of Disgust Irregular voicing quality.
Pitch changes of Anger Abrupt.
Pitch changes of Happiness Smooth, upward.
Pitch changes of Sadness Downward.
Pitch changes of Fear Normal.
Pitch changes of Disgust Very wide downward.
Articulation of Anger Very Tense
Articulation of Happiness Normal.
Articuation of Sadness Slurred.
Articulation of Fear Precise.
Articulation of Disgust Normal.
Personal Quality You can identify an individual's voice because of this and an individual's "voice print." But you can disguise your voice.
Scaling Procedures Listen and rate someone's overall intelligability.
Identification Tasks Where you transcribe what a client says.
Source Problems Horseness, breathingess which can result from cancer or nodules of the vocal folds or Parkinson's disease creating mucus membranes.
Filter Problems Problems with the tongue and other structures in the oral cavity, or the nerves to the tongue.
Dysarthria Neurological disorders in which the muscles used for speech are weak, paralyzed, or incoordinated.
Hearing Impairments People with these have trouble articulating because they cannot hear themselves very well.
Created by: sixleaf