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A&PI - Ch 7

The Skeleton

located in occipital bone, the occipital __ make a joint with first cervical vertebra here condyles
C1-C7 cervical
T1-T12 thoracic
L1-L5 lumbar
lateral deviation in frontal plane associated w/rotation scoliosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature, normally convex posteriorly, caused by TB, osteoporosis kyphosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature, normally concave posteriorly, due to pot belly, pregnancy, TB, osteomalacia lordosis
support vertebrae ligaments
acts as shock absorbers intervertebral discs
interior portion of intervertebral discs nucleus pulposus
exterior of intervertebral discs anulus fibrosus
opening formed by a neural arch through which the spinal cord passes vertebral foramen
body of a vertebra ventral to the neural arch centrum
basal part of each side of neural arch of a vertebra; connects laminae w/centrum pedicle
one exists on each side of neural arch projecting upward adjoining w/inferior process superior articular process
superior articular process articulates w/an inferior articular process of the next more __ vertebra cranial
one exists on each side of the neural arch projecting downward adjoining w/superior process inferior articular process
inferior articular process articulates w/superior articular process of the next more __ vertebra caudal
process that projects on the dorsolateral aspect of each side of neural arch of a vertebra transverse
part of neural arch of a vertebra, extending from pedicle to median line lamina
median, spine-like/plate-like, dorsal process of neural arch of a vertebra spinous process
cartilaginous/bony arch, that encloses spinal cord on dorsal side of a vertebra vertebral arch
vertebral arch is also known as neural arch
are smallest, lightest vertebrae cervical C1-C7
except for C1, C2 & C7, cervical vertebrae have bifid spinous process
all 7 cervical vertebrae contain __ __ for vertebral artery transverse foramen
larger, more prominent spinous process, used for counting, is seen on C7
C1 is also known as atlas
C2 is also known as axis
transverse part of the cruciate ligament of the atlas, is also called transverse ligament
tooth-like process projecting from anterior end of centrum, of axis, in spinal column dens
dens of atlas serves as a(n) __ on which the atlas rotates pivot
is morphologically its centrum, though it is detached from that vertebra; more or less perfectly united w/next one behind it; allows side-to-side 'no' movement of head dens of atlas
dens of atlas is also known as odontoid process
divided into 2 equal lobes/parts by median cleft bifid
has no body, no spinous process, & articulates w/occipital condyles; allows you to nod ‘yes’ atlas( C-1)
found on axis (C2); smooth, flat, circumscribed surface of vertebrae superior articular facet
smooth, flat, or nearly flat, circumscribed anatomical surface facet
spinous process on thoracic vertebrae __ __ points downward
spinous process of lumbar vertebrae are __ __ processes short horizontal
__ on thoracic vertebrae is located on __ process facet; transverse
wing/wing-like anatomic process/part Ala
ala can be found on __ __ view of the sacrum anterior superior
transverse ridges on sacrum are site of __ __ vertebral fusion
any of 16 openings in sacrum foramen
sacral foramen has 4 openings on each side of __ __ giving passage to posterior branches of sacral nerves dorsal surface
sacral foramen has 4 openings on each side of __ __ giving passage to anterior branches of sacral nerves pelvic surface
opening into vertebral canal in midline of dorsal surface of sacrum btwn laminae of 5th sacral vertebra sacral hiatus
ratio of breadth of sacrum to its length x100 sacral index
inwardly projecting anterior part of centrum of 1st sacral vertebra sacral promontory
any of 5 fused vertebrae that make up sacrum sacral vertebra
any of several tubercles on sacrum sacral crests
sacral crest on midline of dorsal surface median sacral crest
any of a series of tubercles on each side of dorsal surface of sacrum lateral sacral crests
lateral sacral crest is lateral to sacral __ foramina
lateral sacral crests represent __ __ of sacral vertebrae transverse processes
lateral sacral crests serve as __ for ligaments attachments
pleural form of foramen foramina
rounded process on each side of 5th sacral vertebra that projects downward sacral cornu
sacral cornu represents a(n) __ __ process of vertebra of sacrum inferior articular
part of vertebral canal lying in sacrum sacral canal
inferior most point of sacrum apex
superior most part of sacrum base
small bone that articulates w/sacrum & usually consists of 4 fused vertebrae coccyx
coccyx form __ of spinal column terminus
part of spinal column directly connected with/forms part of pelvis by articulation with ilia; forms dorsal wall of pelvis & consists of 5 fused vertebrae diminishing in size to apex at lower end which bears coccyx sacrum
bony enclosing wall of chest consisting chiefly of ribs & structures connecting them rib cage
rib cage is also known as thoracic cage
depression in top of sternum btwn its articulations w/two clavicles jugular notch
jugular notch is also known as suprasternal notch
notch on each side of upper part of manubrium clavicular notch
clavicular notch is site of __ w/ a clavicle articulation
bone of pectoral girdle that links scapula & sternum, is situated just above 1st rib on either side of neck, & has form of narrow elongated S clavicle
clavicle is also called collarbone
uppermost segment of sternum that is somewhat triangular flattened bone w/anterolateral borders, which articulate w/clavicles manubrium
formed by joining of manubrium to gladiolus of sternum sternal angle
compound ventral bone/cartilage that lies in median central part of body; about 7" long, consists in adult of 3 parts, & connects w/clavicles & cartilages of upper 7 pairs of ribs sternum
sternum is also called breastbone
smallest & lowest division of human sternum that is cartilaginous early in life but becomes more/less ossified during adulthood xiphoid process
situated or extending between ribs intercostal spaces
any of cartilages that connect distal ends of ribs w/sternum costal cartilages
by elasticity of costal cartilages, permits movement of chest in respiration
lower edge of chest, formed by bottom edge of rib cage costal margin
any rib in last 2 pairs that have no attachment to sternum floating ribs
rib whose cartilages unite indirectly/not at all with sternum false ribs
any of ribs having costal cartilages connected directly w/sternum; constituting 1st 7 pairs true ribs
cartilaginous union between xiphoid process & body of sternum xiphisternal joint
large middle portion of sternum lying btwn upper manubrium & lower xiphoid process gladiolus
true ribs are also known as vertebrosternal
false ribs are also known as vertebrochondral
floating ribs are also known as vertebral
relatively narrow part of rib bone neck
rounded medial extremity of a rib that articulates by 2 facets w/bodies of 2 contiguous vertebrae; except for ribs 1, 10, 11, & 12 head of rib
ridge that separates the superior & inferior articular surfaces of the head of a rib crest
flattened portion of rib btwn head & tuberosity neck of rib
knob on the posterior surface of a rib, at the junction of its neck and shaft, which articulates w/transverse process of vertebra, which corresponds in number to the rib tubercle of rib
tubercle of rib forms a(n) __ __ when it articulates w/transverse process of vertebra costotransverse joint
groove in lower, inner border of rib, lodging the intercostal vessels & nerve costal groove
abrupt change in curvature of body of rib posteriorly, such that neck & head of rib are directed upward angle of rib
part of a rib extending btwn its dorsally placed tubercle & its ventral extremity shaft of rib
shaft of rib is also called body of rib
end of the rib that articulates w/sternum sternal end
__ of rib joins w/thoracic vertebral bodies head
__ of rib joins w/transverse process of thoracic vertebra tubercle
demifacet on upper edge of body of vertebra articulating w/head of rib superior costal facet
single rib articulates w/inferior costal facet & superior costal facet of __ __ adjacent vertebrae
made up of bones of limbs & their girdles appendicular skeleton
attach upper limbs to trunk of body pectoral girdles
attach lower limbs to trunk of body & upper limbs to axial skeleton pelvic girdle
pectoral girdles consist of __ anteriorly & __ posteriorly clavicles; scapulae
__ end of clavicle joins manubrium sternal
__ end of clavicle joins scapula acromial
clavicle acts as a(n) __ for the arm brace
prominence on underside of clavicle that forms one attachment of conoid ligament conoid tubercle
ligament connecting costal cartilage of first rib with clavicle costoclavicular
irregular pitted area on inferior surface of clavicle at its sternal end, giving attachment to the costoclavicular ligament impression
if clavicle is fractured shoulder collapses __ medially
can occur with when falling on outstretched arms fracture of clavicle
clavicle fractures anteriorly because of __ of clavicle curves
if clavicle collapses posteriorly __ __ would be damaged, which passes just deep to clavicle subclavian artery
outer end of spine of scapula that protects glenoid cavity, forms outer angle of shoulder, & articulates w/clavicle acromion
long, curved projection resembling flexed finger arising from neck of scapula overhanging glenoid cavity coracoid process
depression in lateral angle of scapula for articulation with humerus glenoid cavity
concave ventral aspect of body of scapula giving origin to subscapularis muscle subscapular fossa
edge of scapula extending from glenoid fossa to inferior angle lateral border
margin of scapula that extends from glenoid fossa to superior angle superior border
edge of scapula closest to vertebral column, extending from superior angle to inferior angle medial border
acute angle formed by junction of medial & lateral borders of scapula inferior angle
hollow on dorsal aspect of scapula above spine, lodging supraspinatus muscle supraspinous fossa
prominent triangular ridge on the dorsal aspect of the scapula spine of scapula
acromion is __ extension from spine of scapula lateral
hollow on dorsal aspect of scapula inferior to spine infraspinous fossa
large triangular flattened bone lying over the ribs, posteriorly on either side, articulating laterally w/clavicle at acromioclavicular joint & humerus at glenohumeral joint scapula
scapula forms a(n) __ __ with chest wall, also called scapulothoracic articulation functional articulation
rough surface below glenoid cavity of scapula infraglenoid tubercle
sole bone of arm; articulates w/scapula at shoulder, & radius & ulna at elbow humerus
larger of 2 tubercles next to head of humerus; gives attachment to supraspinatus, infraspinatus, & teres minor muscles greater tubercle
furrow running down shaft of humerus btwn 2 tubercles, lodging tendon of long head of biceps, & giving attachment in its floor to latissimus dorsi muscle intertubercular sulcus
anterior of 2 tubercles of neck of humerus on which subscapularis is inserted lesser tubercle humerus
upper rounded extremity fitting into glenoid cavity of the scapula head of humerus
groove separating head of humerus from tuberosities, giving attachment to articular capsule anatomical neck of humerus
narrow portion below head & tuberosities of humerus surgical neck of humerus
rough elevation about middle of lateral side of shaft of humerus, providing attachment (insertion) for deltoid muscle deltoid tuberosity
hollow on anterior surface of distal end of humerus, just above trochlea, in which coronoid process of ulna rests when elbow is flexed coronoid fossa of humerus
epicondylus situated proximal & medial to condyle medial epicondyle of humerus
grooved surface at lower end of humerus articulating with trochlear notch of ulna trochlea of humerus
small rounded eminence on lateral 1/2 of distal end of humerus for articulation w/radius capitulum of humerus
epicondylus situated at lateral side of distal end of bone lateral epicondyle of humerus
shallow depression on anterior aspect of distal humerus, superior to capitulum of humerus & lateral to coronoid fossa radial fossa of humerus
margin of head of radius rests on radial fossa of humerus when elbow is in __ __ extreme flexion
elongated rod-like portion of humerus btwn surgical neck proximally & emergence of supracondylar ridges distally shaft of humerus
distal end of humerus, including trochlea, capitulum & olecranon, coronoid & radial fossae condyle of humerus
prominent curved proximal extremity of ulna, upper & posterior surface of which gives attachment to tendon of triceps muscle, anterior surface entering into formation of trochlear notch olecranon
distal sharp portion of lateral margin of humerus lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
distal sharp portion of medial margin of humerus medial supracondylar ridge of humerus
hollow on dorsum (posterior) of distal end of humerus, just above trochlea olecranon process of humerus
olecranon process of humerus is where olecranon process of ulna rests when elbow is __ extended
prominent curved proximal extremity of ulna, upper & posterior surface of which gives attachment to tendon of triceps muscle, anterior surface entering into formation of trochlear notch olecranon process of ulna
oval projection from medial surface of radius just distal to neck, giving attachment on its posterior half to tendon of biceps radial tuberosity
concavity on lateral aspect of coronoid process of ulna that articulates w/head of radius radial notch
disc-shaped upper extremity articulating w/capitulum of humerus head of radius
narrow part of shaft just below head neck of radius
large semicircular notch at proximal extremity of ulna btwn olecranon & coronoid processes that articulates with trochlea of humerus trochlear notch
bracket-like projection from anterior portion of proximal extremity of ulna; anterior surface gives attachment to brachialis, & its proximal surface enters into formation of trochlear notch coronoid process of ulna
pivot synovial joint btwn head of radius & ring formed by radial notch of ulna & annular ligament proximal radioulnar joint
dense membrane that connects the interosseous margins of radius & ulna, forming radioulnar syndesmosis, & w/those bones separating flexor & extensor compartments of forearm interosseous membrane of forearm
concave surface on medial side of distal end of radius that articulates w/head of ulna ulnar notch
small rounded distal extremity of ulna articulating w/ulnar notch of radius & articular disk head of ulna
cylindric, pointed palpable projection from medial & posterior aspect of head of ulna, to tip of which is attached ulnar collateral ligament of wrist styloid process of ulna
pivot synovial joint btwn head of ulna & ulnar notch on radius; an articular disc passes across distal part of joint distal radioulnar joint
thick, pointed, palpable projection on lateral side of distal extremity of radius styloid process of radius
fracture of distal radius w/displacement and/or angulation of distal fragment dorsally Colle's fracture
btwn proximal extremity & head of ulna shaft of ulna
triangular body of radius located btwn expanded proximal & distal extremities of bone shaft of radius
proximal part of interosseous border of ulna from which a portion of supinator muscle takes origin supinator crest
olecranon process & coronoid process grip trochlear of humerus at __ __ elbow joint
__ surface of head of radius articulates w/capitulum of humerus at elbow joint superior
__ head of radius articulates w/radial notch of ulna medially
lower end of radius articulates w/scaphoid & lunate at __ __ wrist joint
consists of 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones, & 14 phalanges the hand
each finger has __ __ – distal, middle, and proximal three phalanges
thumb has __ middle phalanx no
small, spade-shaped bone in ends of fingers underlying nail bed, each of which bears a tuberosity on its distal palmar aspect from which connective tissue strands (skin ligaments) radiate through pulp distal phalanges
bases of phalanges of medial four fingers __ __ w/heads of middle phalanges articulate proximally
distal phalanx of thumb articulates w/ __ phalanx proximal
five long bones (numbered I–V, beginning w/bone on radial/thumb side) forming skeleton of metacarpus/palm; they articulate w/bones of distal row of carpus & w/5 proximal phalanges metacarpals
8 bones arranged in 2 rows that articulate proximally w/radius & indirectly w/ulna, & distally w/5 metacarpal bones carpals
bone on medial (ulnar) side of distal row of carpus that features a distinct, anteriorly projecting hook; it articulates w/4th & 5th metacarpals hamate
small bone size/shape of pea, in proximal row of carpus, lying on anterior surface of triquetral, w/which it articulates pisiform
bone on medial (ulnar) side of proximal row of carpus, articulating w/lunate, pisiform, & hamate triquetral
bone in proximal row of carpus btwn scaphoid & triquetral; it articulates w/radius, scaphoid, triquetral, hamate, & capitate lunate
bone in distal row of carpus; it articulates w/2nd metacarpal, trapezium, capitate, & scaphoid trapezoid
lateral (radial) bone in distal row of carpus; it articulates w/1st & 2nd metacarpals, scaphoid, & trapezoid bones trapezium
largest bone of proximal row of carpus on lateral (radial) side, articulating w/radius, lunate, capitate, trapezium, & trapezoid scaphoid
largest of carpal bones; located in distal row capitate
formed of number of individual bones, called vertebrae, & 2 composite bones (sacrum & coccyx). vertebral column
articulated series of vertebrae connected by ligaments & separated by more/less elastic intervertebral fibrocartilages; forms supporting axis of body & a protection for spinal cord; extends from btm of skull through median dorsal body to coccyx spinal column
any of bony/cartilaginous segments that make up spinal column; have short, cylindrical body whose ends articulate by pads of elastic/cartilaginous tissue w/those of adjacent & bony arch that encloses spinal cord vertebrae
fetus & infant vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae
cervical & lumbar curvatures are normally concave posteriorly
thoracic & sacral curvatures are normally convex posteriorly
increase resilience & flexibility of spine, allowing it to function like spring rather than rigid rod vertebral column curvatures
pair of hip bones os coxae
os coxae, sacrum & coccyx form bony pelvis
relating to head, neck, & trunk; 1 of 2 major divisions of body axial
structured from 80 bones segregated into 3 major divisions: skull, vertebral column, & thoracic cage axial skeleton
axial skeleton forms __ __ of body longitudinal axis
axial skeleton __ head, neck, & trunk supports
axial skeleton __ brain, spinal cord, & organs of thorax protects
bones of limbs & their girdles are collectively call appendicular skeleton
attach upper limbs to body trunk; consists of clavicle anteriorly, & scapula posteriorly pectoral girdle
more sturdy; secures lower limbs pelvic girdle
paired pectoral girdles & their associated muscles form the shoulder
pectoral girdles allow upper limbs __ __ __ not seen anywhere else in body degree of mobility
anchoring points for ligament which runs to attach to scapula trapezoid line & conoid tubercle
consists of paired coxal bones that attach lower limbs to axial skeleton; transmits full weight of upper body to lower limbs, & supports visceral organs of pelvis pelvic/hip girdle
pelvic girdle is __ to axial skeleton by some of strongest ligaments in body secured
pelvic girdle lacks __ of pectoral girdle mobility
pelvic girdle is __ __ than pectoral girdle more stable
large flaring bone that makes lateral 1/2 of pelvis & is composed of ilium, ischium, & pubis which are fused into 1 bone in adult coxal/hip bone
deep hemispherical socket; cup-like cavity on lateral surface of hip bone that receives femur acetabulum
acetabulum is on __ surface of pelvis lateral
dorsal, upper, & largest 1 of 3 bones composing either lateral 1/2 of pelvis where it joins with ischium & pubis to form part of acetabulum ilium
upper flaring portion of ilium; provides broad surface for attachment of iliac & gluteal muscles; its anterior concavity forms iliac fossa ala of ilium
forms upper 2/5 of acetabulum & joins pubis & ischium in acetabulum; continues above into ala of ilium body of ilium
thick curved upper border of ilium iliac crest
anterior extremity of iliac crest, which provides attachment for inguinal ligament & sartorius muscle anterior superior iliac spine
posterior extremity of iliac crest, uppermost point of attachment of sacrotuberous & posterior sacroiliac ligaments posterior superior iliac spine
posterior superior iliac spine position is revealed by __ __ in sacral region skin dimple
deep indentation in posterior border of hip bone at point of union of ilium & ischium greater sciatic notch
external surface of wing of ilium marked by anterior, posterior, & inferior gluteal lines that separate origins of gluteal muscles gluteal surfaces
smooth inner surface of ilium above arcuate line, giving attachment to iliacus muscle iliac fossa
irregular, L-shaped articular surface on medial aspect of ilium that articulates with sacrum auricular surface
iliac portion of linea terminalis of bony pelvis arcuate line
arcuate line helps define pelvic __ brim
superior margin of true pelvis pelvic brim
body of ilium __ pubis joins
body of ilium __ joins ischium inferiorly
lower and posterior part of hip bone, distinct at birth but later becoming fused with ilium & pubis ischium
entire ischium with exception of ramus body of ischium
joins pubis anteriorly; thinner, inferior branch of ischium ramus of ischium
pointed process from posterior border of ischium on a level w/lower border of acetabulum ischial spine
notch in posterior border of ischium below ischial spine lesser sciatic notch
rough bony projection at junction of lower end of body of ischium & its ramus ischial tuberosity
anteroinferior portion of hip bone, distinct at birth but later becoming fused w/ilium & ischium pubic bone
bar of bone, triangular in section, which extends posterosuperiorly from body of pubis to form superior boundary of obturator foramen superior pubic ramus
inferior extension from body of pubic bone that meets w/ramus of ischium to form ischiopubic ramus inferior pubic ramus
flattened medial portion of pubic bone entering into pubic symphysis; superior & inferior rami extend from it body of pubis
rough anterior border of body of pubis, continuous laterally w/pubic tubercle pubic crest
small palpable projection at the anterior extremity of crest of pubis about 2 cm from symphysis; site of insertion of inguinal ligament pubic tubercle
large oval/irregularly triangular aperture in hip bone, margins of which are formed by pubis & ischium obturator foramen
firm fibrocartilaginous joint in median plane btwn 2 opposing surfaces of pubic bones, which are united by an interpubic disc of fibrocartilage as well as superior & arcuate pubic ligaments pubis symphysis
formed by symphysis, bodies, & inferior rami of pubic bones pubic arch
formed btwn inferior rami of pubic bones subpubic angle
subpubic angle approximates angle btwn widely extended thumb & index finger (90°) in females
subpubic angle approximates angle btwn widely abducted index & middle fingers (60°) in males
expanded portion of pelvis above brim false pelvis
cavity of pelvis below brim/superior aperture true pelvis
upper opening of true pelvis; bounded anteriorly by pubic symphysis & crest on either side, laterally by iliopectineal lines, & posteriorly by promontory of sacrum pelvic inlet
lower opening of true pelvis; bounded anteriorly by pubic arch, laterally by rami of ischium & sacrotuberous ligament on either side, & posteriorly by these ligaments & tip of coccyx pelvic outlet
long bone of thigh, articulating w/hip bone proximally & tibia & patella distally femur
hemispheric articular surface at upper extremity of thigh bone head of femur
depression on extremity-head of femur giving attachment to ligamentum teres femoris fovea capitis
strong process at proximal & lateral part of shaft of femur, overhanging root of neck greater trochanter
pyramidal process projecting from medial & proximal shaft of femur at line of junction of shaft & neck lesser trochanter
rough line that separates neck & shaft of femur anteriorly intertrochanteric line
rounded ridge connecting greater & lesser trochanters of femur posteriorly & marks junction of neck & shaft of femur intertrochanteric crest
roughened area of insertion on upper portion of shaft of femur, for deep, lesser part of gluteus maximus muscle gluteal tuberosity
rough ridge w/2 pronounced lips running down posterior surface of shaft of femur linea aspera
linear medial edge of popliteal surface of femur that ascends from medial epicondyle & continues superiorly as medial lip of linea aspera medial supracondylar line
linear lateral edge of popliteal surface of femur that ascends from lateral epicondyle & continues superiorly as lateral lip of linea aspera lateral supracondylar line
large rounded articular masses of distal end of femur, united anteriorly w/its contralateral partner by patellar surface but separated from it posteriorly and inferiorly by intercondylar fossa medial condyle of femur
rounded articular masses of distal end of femur, united anteriorly w/its contralabial partner by patellar surface but separated from it posteriorly & inferiorly by intercondylar fossa lateral condyle of femur
epicondylus located proximal to medial condyle medial epicondyle of femur
epicondylus located proximal to lateral condyle lateral epicondyle of femur
prominence above medial epicondyle of femur adductor tubercle
groove formed anteriorly btwn anterosuperior portions of femoral condyles that accommodates patella patellar surface
deep fossa btwn femoral condyles in which cruciate ligaments are attached intercondylar fossa
large sesamoid bone, in combined tendon of quadriceps femoris, covering anterior surface of knee patella
dense fibrous layer that connects interosseous margins of tibia & fibula, forming upper portion of tibiofibular syndesmosis & w/bones & intermuscular septa, creating anterior & posterior compartments of leg interosseous membrane of leg
plane synovial joint btwn lateral condyle of tibia & head of fibula tibiofibular joint
medial & larger of 2 bones of leg, articulating w/femur, fibula, & talus tibia
edge of a bone to which interosseous membrane is attached, by which bone becomes attached to another bone interosseous margin
bony mass at superior end of tibia that receives corresponding condyle of femur; shorter condyle closest to midline medial condyle of tibia
bony mass at superior end of tibia that receives corresponding condyle of femur; longer than medial condyle lateral condyle of tibia
elevation on proximal extremity of tibia btwn 2 articular surfaces intercondylar eminence
oval elevation on anterior surface of tibia about 3 cm distal to articular surface tibial tuberosity
sharp subcutaneous ridge of tibia that extends from tuberosity to anterior part of medial malleolus anterior border of tibia
process at medial side of lower end of tibia, forming projection of medial side of ankle medial malleolus
hollow on lateral surface of lower end of tibia in which fibula is lodged fibular notch
lateral & smaller of the 2 bones of leg; does not bear weight & articulates w/tibia above & tibia & talus below fibula
superior extremity of fibula, which articulates by a facet w/under-surface of lateral condyle of tibia head of fibula
process at lateral side of lower end of fibula, forming projection of lateral part of ankle lateral malleolus
seven tarsal bones of instep tarsus
elongated, rod-like portion of metatarsal bone tarsals
bone of foot that articulates superiorly with tibia & fibula to form ankle joint inferiorly w/calcaneus to form subtalar joint, & anteriorly w/navicular, forming medial component of transverse tarsal joint talus
largest of tarsal bones; it forms heel & articulates w/cuboid anteriorly & talus superiorly calcaneus
posterior extremity of calcaneus, or os calcis, forming projection of heel calcaneal tuberosity
support of the talus, bracket-like lateral projection from medial surface of calcaneus, upper surface of which presents a facet for articulation w/talus sustentaculum tali
lateral bone of distal row of tarsus, articulating w/calcaneus, lateral cuneiform, navicular (occasionally), & 4th & 5th metatarsal bones cuboid
flattened, medially placed tarsal bone, concave on its posterior surface to accommodate head of talus, & convex on its anterior surface to articulate w/3 cuneiform bones navicular
largest of 3 cuneiform bones; medial bone of distal row of tarsus, articulating w/intermediate cuneiform, navicular, & 1st & 2nd metatarsal bones medial cuneiform
bone of distal row of tarsus; articulates w/medial & lateral cuneiform, navicular, & 2nd metatarsal bones intermediate cuneiform
bone of distal row of tarsus; articulates w/intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, navicular, & 2nd, 3rd, & 4th metatarsal bones lateral cuneiform
distal portion of foot btwn instep & toes, having as its skeleton 5 long bones (metatarsal bones) articulating proximally with cuboid & cuneiform bones & distally w/phalanges metatarsus
elongated, rod-like portion of metatarsal bone metatarsals
first digit of the foot; great toe hallux
arch, concave inferiorly, formed by metatarsal bones, 3 cuneiform bones, & cuboid transverse arch
higher (deeper) aspect of longitudinal arch of foot; formed by calcaneus, talus, navicular, 3 cuneiform bones, & 3 medial metatarsals medial longitudinal arch of foot
lower (more shallow) aspect of longitudinal arch of foot formed by calcaneus, cuboid, & 2 lateral metatarsals lateral longitudinal arch of foot
supported normally by ligaments, intrinsic muscles, & tendons of extrinsic muscles of foot combined arch
fibrous membranes at angles of cranial bones that accommodate brain growth in fetus/infant fontanelles
congenital fissure in median line of palate, often, but not necessarily associated w/cleft lip; general genetic incidence resembles that of cleft lip cleft palate
resulting from inhalation of foreign material, usually food particles/vomit, into bronchi; developing 2dary to presence in airways of fluid, blood, saliva, or gastric contents aspiration pneumonia
ventrally convex curves of vertebral column that develop postnatally in cervical & lumbar regions: cervical & lumbar lordoses secondary curvatures
acetabulum forms incompletely or ligament of hip joint are loose, so head of femur slips out of socket dysplasia of hip in infants
arches of foot __ when weight is applied to foot & __ __ when it is lifted stretch; spring back
Created by: lfrancois