Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Lower Extremities OT

Muscle Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Nerve Innervations

QuestionAnswer
O. Anterior superior iliac spine I. Upper medial shaft of tibia A. Assist flexion of femur, assist abduction of femur, assist flexion of knee, assist medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed and foot is unweighted. N. femoral nerve (L2,3) Sartorius
The longest muscle in the body, it is the most superficial thigh muscle and forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle. Name derived from Latin word for tailor, sartor, to indicate its action of bringing the leg into a x-legged sitting position. Sartorius
O. Lumbar vertebrae L1-5, transverse processes I. Lesser trochanter of femur A. Flexion of trunk, Flexion of trunk- lumbar spine, assist lateral flexion of trunk- lumbar spine N. L2, 3 spinal nerves Psoas Major
O. iliac fossa of ilium I. Lesser trochanter of femur A. Flexion of femur N. femoral nerve (L2,3) Iliacus
Four large, anterior thigh muscles that insert below the knee and act to extend the knee. The three vasti lie deep to rectus femoris and two (vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) have their origins on the posterior femur. Quadriceps Femoris Group
O. Anterior inferior iliac spine Ilium @ upper rim of acetabulum I. Patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament N. Femoral nerve (L2,3,4) Rectus Femoris
The only muscle in the quadriceps group that originates on the pelvis and crosses both the hip and knee joints. Its combined actions bring the leg forward in walking. When the insertion is fixed, the muscle extends the knee as seen in jumping. Rectus Femoris
O. Linea aspera of femur Intertrochanteric line of femur I. Patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament A. Extension of knee N. Femoral nerve (L2,3,4) Vastus Medialis
O. Linea aspera of femor Greater trochanter of femur I. Patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament A. Extension of knee N. Femoral nerve (L2,3,4) Vastus lateralis
O. Ant. and lateral femoral shaft I. Patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament A. Extension of knee N. Femoral nerve (L2,3,4) Vastus Intermedius
Vastus is Latin for immense. Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis, and Vastus Intermedius derive their name from their size and position. What is the largest muscle of this group? Vastus lateralis
O. Superios ramus of anterior pubis I. pectineal line of femur, inferior to less trochanter A. Flexion of femur, adduction of femur, assist medial rotation of femur N. Femoral nerve (L2,3) Pectineus
The only hip adductor supplied by the femoral nerve, a fact explained by it being considered an extension of the iliopsoas. However like other hip adductors, it is sometimes supplied by a branch of the obturator nerve. Pectineus
Medial thigh muscles that adduct the femur. Adductor Group
The uppermost muscle of the Adductor Group Pectineus
Largest, deepest, and most powerful muscle muscle of the Adductor Group Adductor Magnus
Superficial to adductor magnus and deep to adductor longus and pectineus. Adductor Brevis
Most anterior of the adductors Adductor Longus
The most medial and weakest muscle of Adductor Group Gracilis
O. Anterior pubis- body, inferior to pubic crest I. Linea aspera of femur- middle one third A. Adduction of femur, assist flexion of femur N. Obturator nerve (L2,3,4) Adductor Longus
O. Anterior pubis- body and inferior ramus I. Linea aspera of femur- proximal part, Pectineal line of femur A. Adduction of femur, assist flexion of femur N. Obturator nerve (L2,3,4) Adductor Brevis
Forms the medial border of the femoral triangle that contains the femoral nerve, artery, and vein. Adductor Longus
Referred to as the "long adductor" Adductor Longus
Referred to as the "short adductor" Adductor Brevis
O. inferior ramus of anterior pubis I. Medial proximal tibia A. Adduction of femur, assist flexion of knee, assist medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed N. Obturator nerve (L2,3) Gracilis
The only muscle in the adductor group to cross the hip and knee joints. Gracilis
The femoral shaft and this muscle for the shape of the letter "V" Gracilis
O. Posterior sacrum, ilium (via sacrotuberous ligament), Posterior(superior) gluteal line of ilium I. Iliotibial tract (attaching to lateral condyle of tibia) A. Extension of femur, lateral rotation of extended hip N. Inferior gluteal nerve Gluteus Maximus
Muscle in Gluteal group used mostly for power, as in going upstairs, rising from a sitting position, climbing or running rather than walking. Can move femur against the pelvis (hip extension) or move the pelvis against the femur (posterior pelvic tilt) Gluteus Maximus
O. Iliac crest of ilium, ilium- between posterior (superior)and anterior (middle) gluteal lines I. Greater trochanter of femur A. Abduction of femur, Anterior fibers: Medial rotation of femur N. Superior gluteal nerve (L5,S1) Gluteus Medius
When standing on one foot,_____________ contracts on that side to help stabilize the pelvis and prevent it from tilting on the unsupported side. Paralysis of this muscle on one side will cause the pelvis to tilt towards the uninvolved side in walking. Gluteus Medius
O. Posterior ilium- between anterior (middle) and inferior gluteal lines I. Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur A. Abduction, Medial rotation of femur N. Superior gluteal nerve (L5, S1) Gluteus Minimus
Works with anterior portion of gluteus medius to steady the pelvis during ipsilateral weight-bearing Gluteus Minimus
O. Iliac crest- post to ant sup iliac spine I. Iliotibial tract(attaches to lateral condyle of tibia) A. Assist: flexion, abduction, and med rotation of femur, stability of extended knee in standing and ambulation,extension of knee N. Sup glu Tensor Fasciae Latae
O. Anterior sacrum, Sacral ligament I. Greater trochanter of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Nerve to piriformis (S1,2) Piriformis
O. Ischial spine I. Greater trochanter of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1) Gemellus Superior
O. Ischial tuberosity I. Greater trochanter of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Nerve to quadratus femoris (L5,S1) Gemellus Inferior
O. Obturator foramen I. Greater trochanter of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Nerve to obturator internus Obturator Internus
O. Obturator foramen I. Trochanteric fossa of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Obturator nerve Obturator Externus
O. Ischial tuberosity I. Quadrate tubercle of femur A. Lateral rotation of femur N. Nerve to quadratus femoris Quadratus femoris
Lies between the rotators and piriformis and may be entrapped or compressed by piriformis Sciatic Nerve
The ______________ is essential for hip extension for upright posture and may assist trunk extension at the hip joint when the thighs are fixed. Hamstrings Group
Difficulty touching the toes while keeping knees extended may be due to shortened _________________. Hamstrings
O. Ischial tuberosity I. Head of fibula- lateral aspect Lateral condyle of tibia A. Flexion of knee, Lateral rotaion of tibia when knee is flexed, Extension of femur N. Sciatic nerve- tibial division (L5, S1,2) Biceps Femoris: Long Head
O. Linea aspera I. Head of fibula- lateral aspect Lateral condyle of tibia A. Flexion of knee, Lateral rotaion of tibia when knee is flexed N. Sciatic nerve- fibular division (L5,S1,2) Biceps femoris: Short Head
O. Ischial tuberosity I. Anterior proximal tibial shaft A. Extension of femur, Flexion of knee, Medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed N. Sciatic nerve- tibial division (L5,S1,2) Semitendinosus
O. Ischial tuberosity I. Posterior medial tibial condyle A. Extension of femur, Flexion of knee, Medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed N. Sciatic nerve- tibial division (L5,S1,2) Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus and semimembranosus insert _________ at the knee and account for the medial rotation of the tibia by the semimembranosus and semitendinosus. Medially,
Biceps femoris inserts ___________ at the knee and accounts for the lateral rotation of the tibia by the biceps femoris. Laterally,
O. Lateral condyle of tibia, lateral shaft of tibia, Interosseous membrane I. Base of 1st metatarsal- plantar surface Medial cuneiform tarsal bone-plantar surface A. Dorsiflexion of ankle, Inversion of foot N. Deep fibular nerve (L4,50 Tibialis Anterior
The strongest dorsiflexor of the ankle and enables the toes to clear the ground in ambulation. Tibialis Anterior
Paralysis of this muscle causes foot drop. Tibialis Anterior
"Shin splints" result from overuse of this muscle. Tibialis Anterior
O. Lateral condyle of tibia Proximal 2/3 of anterior shaft of fibula I. Middle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes A. Extension of 4 lateral toes at MP joints, Assist dorsiflexion of ankle N. Deep fibular nerve (L5,S1) Extensor Digitorum Longus
This muscle is comparable to the extensor digitorum in the hand and its tendons comprise the extensor expansion of the foot. Extensor Digitorum Longus
O. Anterior shaft of fibula Interosseous membrane I. Base of distal phalanx of the great toe A. Extension of great toe at IP joint, Extension of great toe at MP joint, Assist dorsiflexion of ankle N. Deep fibular nerve (L5,S1) Extensor Hallucis Longus
This muscle is comparable to extensor pollicis in the hand. Extensor Hallucis Longus
O. Anterior distal fibula (w/ extensor digitorum longus) I. Base of 5th metatarsal A. Eversion of foot, Assists dorsiflexion of foot N. Deep fibular nerve (L5,S1) Fibularis Tertius (Peroneus Tertius)
Considered to be part of extensor digitorum longus,________________ places the foot flat on the ground by raising the lateral border. It contracts reflexively when the foot is over-inverted thus preventing ankle injury. Fibularis Tertius (Peroneus Tertius)
Traverses the sole of the foot to meet the tibialis anterior tendon to form a stirrup for the foot. Fibularis longus (Peroneus Longus)
O. Head and lateral shaft of fibula- upper2/3 I. Base of first metatarsal- plantar surface Medial cuneiform tarsal bone- plantar surface A. Eversion of foot, Assists plantarflexion of ankle N. Superficial fibular nerve (L5,S1) Fibularis longus (Peroneus Longus)
O. Lateral shaft of fibula- lower 2/3 I. Base of 5th metatarsal- lateral surface A. Eversion of foot, Assists plantarflexion of ankle N. Superficial fibular nerve (L5,S1) Fibularis Brevis (Peroneus Brevis)
The action of the foot ____________ (as well as invertors) is especially helpful when walking or running on uneven surfaces. sometimes the muscles "give out," and a sprained ligament can result. Evertors
O. Medial head: Medial epicondyle of femur Lateral head: Lateral epicondyle of femur I. Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon (tendo Achilles) A. Plantarflexion of ankle, Assist flexion of knee N. Tibial nerve (S1,2) Gastrocnemius
This muscle can act on the knee or ankle separately, but not simultaneously, Gastrocnemius
O. Soleal line of tibia, Posterior head of fibula, Upper shaft of fibula I. Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon (tendo Achilles) A. Plantaflexion of ankle N. Tibial nerve (S1,2) Soleus
Together, the gastrocnemius and soleus are referred to as the___________ and are powerful plantarflexors of the ankle for raising the heal in running and jumping. Triceps Surae
Deep to gastrocnemius, ____________ is the stronger plantarflexor and is fatigue- resistant. Soleus
O. Posterior tibia, Posterior fibula, Interosseous membrane I. Navicular tarsal bone, Adjacent tarsals and metatarsals on plantar surface A. Inversion of foot, Assist plantarflexion of ankle N. Tibial nerve (L4,5) Tibialis Posterior
The most anterior and superficial tendon of the three deep posterior calf muscle tendons that course around medial malleolus. Tibialis Posterior
The most posterior and deep tendon of the three deep posterior calf muscle tendons that course around medial malleolus. Flexor Hallucis Longus
The deepest of the three deep posterior calf muscles. Tibialis Posterior
O. Posterior tibia I. Distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes- plantar surface A. Flexion of 4 lateral toes at IP joints, Assist flexion of lateral toes at MP joints, Assists plantarflexion of ankle N. Tibial nerve (S2,3) Flexor Digitorum Longus
This muscle is comparable to the flexor digitorum profundus in the hand. Flexor Digitorum Longus
O. Posterior fibula I. Distal phalanx of great toe- plantar surface A. Flexion of great toe at MP joint, Flexion of great toe at IP joint, Assist plantarflexion of ankle N. Tibial nerve (S2,3) Flexor Hallucis Longus
This muscle plays an important role in forward propulsion by flexing the big toe to push off the ground when walking and running. Flexor Hallucis Longus
O. Lateral epicondyle of femur I. Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon A. Assists planterflexion of ankle, Assists flexion of knee N. Tibial nerve (S1,2) Plantaris
Muscle that is superficial on the posterior of the knee joint, lying between the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Plantaris
The lower extremity counterpart of palmaris longus of the hand and is absent in some persons. Plantaris
Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Plantaris share this common insertion. Calcaneal tendon
O. Anterior calcaneus I. Extensor expansion of 4 medial toes A. Assists extension of 4 medial toes at MP joints, Assist extension of 4 medial toes at IP joints N. Deep fibular nerve (L5, S1) Extensor Digitorum Brevis
O. Anterior calcaneus (portion of the extensor digitorum brevis to the great toe) I. Base of the proximal phalanx A. Assist extension of the great toe at metatarsophalangeal (MP)joint. Extensor hallucis Brevis
The belly of ___________ may be mistaken for swelling near the lateral malleolus and, when the muscle is bruised, it may become swollen and mistaken for an ankle sprain. Extensor Digitorum Brevis
This muscle is comparable to the abductor pollicis brevis in the hand. Abductor Hallucis
This muscle is comparable to flexor digitorum superficialis in the forearm. Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Abductor Hallucis N. Medial plantar nerve (S2,3) Flexor Digitorum Brevis N. Medial plantar nerve (S2,3) Abductor Digiti Minimi N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Muscles of the Foot- Layer 1
Abductor Hallucis is innervated by _____________. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
Flexor Digitorum Brevis is innervated by ___________________. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
Abductor Digiti Minimi is innervated by _____________________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
Lumbricals N. 2nd toe: Medial plantar nerve(S2,3) 3rd, 4th, 5th toes: Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Quadratus Plantae N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Muscles of the Foot- Layer 2
Quadratus Plantae is also known as ______________, and assistant to the flexor digitorum longus. Flexor Digitorim Accessorius
The lumbricals are innervated by______________. 2nd toe: Medial Plantar Nerve(S2,3) 3rd, 4th, 5th toes: Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
The Quadratus Plantae muscle is innervated by ____________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
The _________ of the foot are comparable to the lumbricals of the hand Lumbricals
The ____________of the foot has no counterpart muscle in the hand and may be absent in some persons. Quadratus Plantae
Flexor Hallucis Brevis N. Medial plantar nerve (S2,3) Adductor Hallucis N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Muscles of the foot- Layer 3
The Flexor Hallucis Brevis is innervated by ____________. Medial Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
The Adductor Hallucis is innervated by ___________________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
The Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis is innervated by ______________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
This muscle has two heads and is comparable to adductor pollicis in the hand. Flexor Hallucis Brevis
This muscle is comparable to adductor pollicis in the hand. Adductor Hallucis
This muscle is comparable to flexor digiti minimi brevis in the hand. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Dorsal Interossei (4) N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Plantar Interossei (3) N. Lateral plantar nerve (S2,3) Muscles of the Foot- Layer 4
The Dorsal Interossei (4) are innervated by _______________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
The Plantar Interossei (3) are innervated by ________________. Lateral Plantar Nerve (S2,3)
Created by: otillery