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Endocrine: CCM

Endcrine System Flashcards. Spring 2011 Prof Crabbe at CCM

QuestionAnswer
Growth Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) GH, Growth, Pituitary
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) TSH, Regulates endocrine function of the thyroid gland, Pituitary
Adrenocorticopic (Abbreviation, Action, Location) ACTH; release of corticosteroid hormones that help body resist stressors; Pituitary
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) FSH; Sperm or egg production; pituitary
Luteinizing Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) LSH; production of gonadal hormone; Pituitary
Prolactin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) PRL; milk production in women; Pituitary
Oxytocin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; uterine contraction; posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) ADH, prevents large swings in water balance; posterior pituitary
Thyroxin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) T4; glucose oxidation, increases metabolic rate and body heat production; Thyroid
Triodothronine (Abbreviation, Action, Location) T3: more active form, glucose oxidation, increases metabolic rate and body heat production; thyroid
Calcitonin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; antagonist of parathyroid hormone which controls calcium levels in blood; Thyroid
Parathyroid Hormone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) PTH; controls calcium level in blood; Parathyroid
Mineralocorticoid: Aldosterone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; sodium ion balance; Adrenal
Glucocorticoid: Cortisol (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; energy level of body cells, help resist stressors; adrenal
Gonadocorticoid: Testosterone (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; onset of puberty, sexual maturation; Adrenal
Epinephrine (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; sympathetic nervous system activation in presence of stressor, fight or flight response, bronchial dilation, increased blood flow to skeleton and heart; Adrenal
Norepinephrine (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; sympathetic nervous system activation in presence of stressor, fight or flight response, peripheral vascularization, change in b/p; Adrenal
Glucagon (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; increases blood glucose levels, antagonist of insulin; pancreas
Insulin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; lowers blood glucose levels, influences protein and fat metabolism; pancreas
Melatonin (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; makes ppl drowsy; Pineal
Thymopoietins, thymic factor, thymosins (Abbreviation, Action, Location) none; essential for development of T lymphocytes and immune response; Thymus
Hormone (define) chemical substance, secreted by cell into extra cellular fluid that regulate metabolic function of other cells of the body
Autocrines (define) chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them
Paracrines (define) chemicals that act locally but affect cells types other than those releasing them
Tissues other than endocrine gland that release hormones Heart, GI tract, Placenta, Kidneys, Skin Adipose Tissue
Target Organs (define) Organs with specific receptors relating to specific hormones
Exocrine Gland (define) produce nonhormonal substances (sweat, saliva), and have ducts that excrete these substances to membrane surface
Endocrine Gland (define) ductless glands, produce hormones, releasing them into surrounding tissue. CHIEF ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Neurotransmitters that become hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine
Connection of posterior pituitary and hypothalamus nerve bundle called hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract, runs through infundibulum
Connection of anterior pituitary and hypothalamus no neural connection, vascular connection called primary capillary plexus in infundibulum
Pituitary part of brain? Posterior lobe is, downgrowth of hypothalamic tissue, maintains neural connection with hypothalamus
Hormones released from hypothalamus Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (GHIH(
Deepest Layer of Cortex and hormones released Zona reticularis: gonadocorticoids: adrenal sex hormones
Middle Layer of Cortex and hormones released Zona faciculata: glucocorticoids: metabolic hormones
Superior Layer of Cortex and hormones released Zona golmerulosa: mineralocorticoids: helps control balance of minerals and water in blood
Hormones released by adrenal medulla Epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE), also considered neurotransmitters because of effect or autonomic nervous system
Pancreatic islet: Alpha cell glucagon-synthesizing: regulate blood glucose levels
Pancreatic islet: Beta cell Insulin-producing: regulate blood glucose levels
Pancreatic islet: Delta cell Somatostatin: growth inhibiting
Hormones produced by Heart and affect Atrial natriuertic peptide: reduces blood volume, pressure and sodium concentration
Hormones produced by Skin and affect cholecalciferol: inactive form of D3, regulator of carrier system of intestinal cells
Hormones produced by Liver and affect insulin-growth factors: aka somatodemins, growth promoting proteins
Hormones produced by Kidney and affect erythropoietin: bone marrow production of RBCs
Storage form/name of thyroid hormone T4: triiodthryonine
Hydrophilic hormones and importance's Amino acid based, do not require transport
Hydrophobic hormones and importance's Steroid based, require transport to enter cell
Hormone Saturation and Alteration Saturation: when amount of hormone released is equal to the number of target receptors available, altered through up and down regulation.
Hormones cleared some degraded by enzymes, most removed from blood by kidney and liver and excreted through urine and feces
Permissiveness situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present
Synergism more than one hormone produces the same effect as at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
Antagonism when one hormone opposes actions of another
General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1 Alarm reaction: increased heart rate and b/p, liver converts glycogen to glucose and releases glucose into blood, dilation of bronchioles, change in blood flow patterns leads to: increased alertness, decreased digestive and urine output
General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 2 Resistance: retention of water and sodium by kidneys, increased blood volume and pressure
General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 3 Exhaustion: proteins and fats converted to glucose or broken down for energy, increased blood sugar, suppression of immune system
Type I Diabetes little or no insulin produced, daily insulin required
Type II Diabetes pancreases doesn’t make enough insulin or body doesn’t use it correctly, can be corrected through diet and medication
Tropic Hormones (define) hormones that are produced and excreted by anterior pituitary and target endocrine glands
Created by: kallenpoole