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A&PI - Chapter5

Integumentary System

epithelial layer of skin epidermis
strong, flexible, connective tissue layer of skin dermis
subcutaneous tissue deep to skin hypodermis
epidermis is composed of __ __ squamous epithelium keratinized stratified
epidermis is __ __ of skin outer portion
epidermis is exposed to __ environment external
epidermis functions in __ protection
cells of epidermis consist of __ cell types four
cells of epidermis; most epidermal cells keratinocytes
keratinocytes produce __ keratin protein
cells of epidermis; produce brown pigment melanin melanocytes
cells of epidermis; immune function; phagocytes Langerhans' cells
cells of epidermis; function as tough receptors Merkel cells
layers of epidermis consist of __ layer(s) four-five
deepest layer of epidermis; single row of stem cells; mitotically active; replace cells shed from surface stratum basale
layer of epidermis' prickly layer; several cell layers thick; contains prekeratin stratum spinosum
layer of epidermis absent in skin stratum lucidum
layer of epidermis; cells have granules stratum granulosum
layer of epidermis; superficial; consists of dead cells filled w/keratin, which protects & water proofs stratum corneum
thickened epidermis w/thick keratin layer callus
stratum __: cells are dead; represented only by flat membranous sacs filled w/keratin corneum
stratum __: cells are flattened; organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated & keratohyaline granules granulosum
lamellated granules __ lipids release
in extracellular space of stratum corneum glycolipids
superficial stratum __: cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of prekeratin spinosum
__ stratum spinosum: cells are actively mitotic stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of superficial layers deep
Merkel cells, melanocytes, & Melanin granules are contained in stratum __ basale
dermis contains sensory __ __ nerve endings
dermis is composed of two layers, __ & __ papillary; reticular
superficial; consists of loose areolar CT papillary layer of dermis
peg-like projections on superior part of papillary layer; contain capillary loops, touch & pain receptors dermal papillae
dermal papillae w/overlying epidermal ridges that form friction ridges on palms, fingers, soles, & toes fingerprints
deep dermis; forms 80% of skin's thickness; dense irregular CT: collagen & elastin fibers dermis
collagen fibers of dermis add __ strength
elastin fibers of dermis provide __ stretch
dermis __ sweat glands, hairs roots, & blood vessels contains
less dense region btwn collagen bundles in dermis cleavage lines
skin creases where dermis is tightly bound to deeper structures; i.e. on wrist & fingers flexure lines
hypodermis is also called superficial fascia
hypodermis is subcutaneous layer __ to skin deep
hypodermis is composed of mostly __ tissue adipose
hypodermis __ __ skin to underlying structures, mostly muscle, allowing skin to slide loosely anchors
hypodermis functions as shock absorber & heat insulator
yellow to reddish-brown to black pigments, produce by melanocytes; polymer make of tyrosine amino acids melanin
melanin synthesis depends on enzyme in melanocytes, tyrosinase, passing from melanocytes to basal keratinocytes; melanosomes broken down by lysosomes, so melanin pigment is mostly in basal cell layer
amount of melanin produced depends on __ factors & __ __ sunlight genetic; exposure to
melanin protects __ of skin cells from UV rays of sun DNA
skin cancer is more common in __ __ individuals fair skinned
result from local accumulation of melanin freckles & pigmented moles
in fairer individuals, skin color is also affect by __ __ in RBCs in blood flowing close to skin oxygenated hemoglobin
yellow to orange pigment, found in some plants; most obvious in palms & soles of feet carotene
bluish/purplish discoloration of skin, due to deficient oxygenation of blood cyanosis
yellowish pigmentation of skin, tissues, & certain body fluids caused by deposition of bile pigments; follows interference w/normal production & discharge of bile jaundice
sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair & nails appendages of skin
eccrine & apocrine are types of __ glands sweat
more numerous; abundant in palms, soles of feet, & forehead eccrine glands
eccrine glands open via __ on skin surface duct
acid pH 4-6; inhibits bacterial growth; contains NaCl, antibodies, & metabolic wastes sweat from eccrine glands
sweat prevents __ of body overheating
eccrine glands control by __ nervous system; heat induced sweating or emotionally induced sweating sympathetic
found in axillary & anogenital areas apocrine glands
apocrine ducts empty into hair follicles
milky/yellowish thicker secretion; contains fatty substances & proteins that cause body odor sweat from apocrine glands
apocrine glands begin functioning at __ puberty
apocrine glands have __ __ in heat regulation little role
modified apocrine sweat gland in external ear canal that secrete cerumen ceruminous glands
ear wax cerumen
modified apocrine sweat gland, specialized to secrete milk mammary glands
found all over body, except of palms & soles sebaceous glands
sebaceous gland that secretes oily secretion called sebum into hair follicles holocrine glands
contains lipids & cell debris; secrete by holocrine glands; softens skin/hair & protects against bacteria sebum
sebum & hair; pasty covering chiefly of dead cells & sebaceous secretions that protects skin of fetus vernix caseosa
infections of sebaceous glands acne
caused by overactive sebaceous glands seborrhea
strands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles pili
contain hard keratin; present everywhere except palms, soles, lips, nipples, & parts of external genitalia hair
hair is made up of a(n) __ & a(n) __ shaft; root
hair has __ layers of keratinized cells three
only part of hair that contains soft keratin, abundant in fine hair medulla
bulky layer of hair surrounding medulla; consisting of several layers of flattened cells cortex
outermost layer of hair, most heavily keratinized; formed from single layer of cells that overlap one another from below, like shingles on roof cuticle
hair is __ by melanocytes at base of hair follicle pigmented
fold down from epidermal surface into dermis hair follicles
deep end of hair follicle is expanded forming a(n) hair bulb
dermal CT protruding into bulb; its capillaries nourish hair papilla
actively dividing area, producing hair cells; originates in region called hair bulge hair matrix
wrap around each hair bulb, bending hair stimulates them sensory nerve endings
our hair acts as __ touch receptor sensitive
tiny, smooth muscles attached to hair follicles; contraction causes hair to stand upright arrector pili muscle
fine hair on fetus, shed before birth lanugo hair
pale, fine body hair found in children & adult female vellus
coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary & pubic regions terminal
help to maintain warmth, alerts body to presence of insects on skin, guards scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, & sunlight functions of hair
scale-like modification of epidermis, contains hard keratin nail
nail corresponds to __ __ of epidermis keratinized layer
deeper layers of epidermis form nail __ bed
nail consists of free edge, body, & root
nail matrix producing nail cells proximal nail fold
function of integumentary system; low pH inhibits bacterial growth, defensin kills bacteria; substances in sebum kill bacteria; melanin prevents UV dmg chemical barrier
function of integumentary system; intact skin, keratin, waterproofing; organic solvents & heavy metals do penetrate physical/mechanical barrier
function of integumentary system; role of Langerhans cells in immunity biological barrier
function of integumentary system; dilation & constriction of dermal vessels to prevent heat loss or stimulate heat conservation; increasing swear secretions to cool body when sweat evaporates body temperature regulation
function of integumentary system; receptor for touch, pain & pressure cutaneous sensation
function of integumentary system; synthesis of vitamin D metabolic
function of integumentary system; blood vessels in dermis can hold 5% of blood volume blood reservoir
function of integumentary system; loss of water/salt & some nitrogenous wastes excretion
important risk factor in exposure to UV radiation in sunlight which dmgs DNA skin cancer
there are __ major types of skin cancer three
mostly on sun exposed ares of face & appear shiny, dome-shaped nodules that later develop central ulcer (rodent ulcer) w/pearly, beaded edge basal cell carcinoma
most common skin carcinoma; locally invasive, slow growing, & does not metastasize; can be sure by surgical excision basal cell
arises from keratinocytes, most often on head (scalp, ears, & lower lip); grows rapidly & metastasizes if not removed; prognosis good if treated surgically w/radiation therapy squamous cell carcinoma
most dangerous skin carcinoma, because highly metastatic; treated by wide surgical excision; chance of survival poor if lesion over 4mm thick malignant melanoma
malignant melanoma is cancer of __ of skin melanocytes
ABCD rule: 2 sides of pigmented area do not match Asymmetry
ABCD rule: irregular & shows indentations Border
ABCD rule: pigmented area shows different colors Color
ABCD rule: larger than 6mm (size of pencil eraser) Diameter
ABCD rule: above skin surface Elevation
border, elevation, color, asymmetry, diameter, ABCD rule for skin carcinomas
only epidermis dmgd; symptoms incl: localized redness, swelling, & pain; i.e. sunburns 1st degree
epidermis & upper regions of dermis dmgd; blisters also appear, burns heal in few weeks, no scarring 2nd degree
entire thickness of skin dmgd; burned area appears gray-white, red, or black; no initial edema/pain (nerve endings destroyed); requires skin grafts 3rd degree
can cause fluid & electrolyte loss, & shock severe burns
used to find out approximate percentage of body surface burnt so IV fluids can be given rule of nines
Rules of Nines: 4-1/2% each = total 9% anterior/posterior head
Rules of Nines: 4-1/2% each = total 18% anterior/posterior upper limbs
Rules of Nines: 18% each = total 36% anterior/posterior trunk
Rules of Nines: 1% perineum
Rules of Nines: 9% each = total 36% anterior/posterior lower limbs
skin and its derivatives; provides external protective covering of body integumentary system
fibrous protein found in epidermis, hair, & nails that makes those structures hard/water resistant keratin
precursor of keratin is keratohyaline
star-shaped; arise from bone marrow & migrate to epidermis; another name for Langerhans cells epidermal dendritic cells
ingest foreign substance & are key activators of immune system; have slender processes that extend among surrounding keratinocytes, forming more/less continuous network Langerhans cells
present in epidermal junction; shaped like spiky hemisphere, each cell intimately associated w/disc-like sensory nerve ending Merkel/tactile cells
combination of disc-like sensory nerve ending & Merkel/tactile cell tactile/Merkel disc
skin that covers pals, fingertips, & soles of feet; epidermis consists of 5layers/strata; contains stratum lucidum thick skin
skin that covers rest of body; missing stratum lucidum thin skin
in stratum basale, many mitotic nuclei seen in this layer reflect rapid division of these cells & account for its alternative name stratum germinativum
each basale layer cell divides, one daughter cell pushed to layer above to begin its __ into mature keratinocyte specialization
when basale layer divides, the daughter cell that remains continues process of producing new keratinocytes
occasionally __ cells are also seen in basale layer tactile
stratum spinosum contains web-like system of intermediate filaments, mainly tension-resisting bundles of __ __, which span their cytosol to attach to desmosomes prekeratin filaments
in stratum spinosum, keratinocytes in this layer appear to have spines, causing then to be called prickle cells
spines of keratinocytes, in spinosum layer, do not exist in living cells; they are __ that arise during tissue preparation when cells shrink but numerous desmosomes hold tight artifacts
scattered among keratinocytes, in spinosum layer, are melanin granules & epidermal dendritic cells, which are __ __ in this epidermal layer most abundant
process in which cells fill with protein keratin keratinization
in stratum granulosum, keratinocytes __ changes drastically and process of keratinization begins appearance
keratinocytes, in granulosum layer, flatten, their nuclei & organelles begin to disintegrate, & they accumulate 2 type of granules, which are keratohyaline & lamellated
the plasma membranes of, keratinocyte, cells thicken as cytosol proteins bind to inner membrane face & lipids released by lamellated granules coat exterior surface making them more resistant to destruction
stratum lucidum is only visible in __ skin thick
stratum corneum is broad zone, 20-30 layers thick, accounting for up to 3/4 of epidermal __ thickness
shingle0like cell remnants of stratum corneum are referred to __, or horny, cells cornified
stratum __ are dandruff shed from scalp & dander, loose flakes that slough off dry skin corneum
cells of dermis are typical of those found in any CT proper, which are fibroblasts, macrophages, occasional mast cells, & WBC
matrix of dermis is __, embedded w/fibers, binding entire body together like a body stocking semi-fluid
dermis is __ __ with nerve fibers, blood vessels, & lymphatic vessels richly supplied
major portion of hair follicles, as well as oil/sweat glands, are derived from __ tissue but reside in dermis epidermal
many dermal papillae contain __ __ of the subpapillary plexus capillary loops
touch receptor in papillary layer of dermis Meissner's corpuscles
collectively the overlying papillae, dermal ridges, & epidermal ridges are called friction ridges
sweat pores open along crests of friction ridges, leaving identifying films of sweat called fingerprints
network of blood vessels that nourish reticular layer, lies btwn reticular layer & hypodermis cutaneous plexus
contains pockets of adipose cells & thick bundles of interlacing collagen fibers reticular extracellular matrix
collagen fibers in reticular extracellular matrix run __ to skin surface parallel
cleavage/tension lines in skin, tend to run __ in skin of head & limbs longitudinally
cleavage/tension lines in skin, tend to run __ in skin around neck & trunk circularly
dermal folds that occur at/near joints, where dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures; because skin cannot slide as easily to accommodate joint movement, dermis folds & deep skin creases form flexure lines
indicated by silvery white scars, called striae, commonly called stretch marks dermal tearing
separation of epidermal & dermal layers by fluid-filled pocket blister
melanocytes are stimulated to greater activity by __ secreted by surrounding keratinocytes when exposed to __ chemicals; sunlight
carotene tends to accumulate in stratum __ & fatty tissue of __ corneum; hypodermis
carotene can be converted to __ __ essential for normal vision, as well as for epidermal health vitamin A
reddened skin may indicate embarrassment/blushing, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy erythema
during fear, anger, & certain other type of emotional stress, some people become pale; may also signify anemia or low blood pressure pallor/blanching
almost metallic appearance of skin is sign of Addison's disease, in which adrenal cortex is producing inadequate amount of its steroid hormones; sign/presence pituitary gland tumors in inappropriately secrete melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) bronzing
black-and-blue marks reveal where blood escaped from circulation & clotted beneath skin bruises
clotted masses where blood escaped circulation, are called hematomas
epidermal gland that produces sweat sudoriferous gland
eccrine sweat glands are also called merocrine
hypotonic filtrate of blood that passes through secretory cells of sweat glands & is released by exocytosis eccrine gland secretion
microbe-killing peptide, secreted by eccrine sweat gland dermcidin
sebaceous gland blocked by accumulated sebum whitehead
if material from whitehead oxidizes & dries, it darkens to form blackhead
nipple-like bit of dermal tissue, protruding into hair bulb; contain knot of capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair & signals it to grow hair papilla
wall of hair follicle is composed of outer CT root __, __ membrane, & __ root sheath sheath; glassy; epithelial
wall of hair follicle derived from dermis CT root sheath
wall of hair follicle; thickened basement membrane glassy membrane
wall of hair follicle derived mainly from invagination of epidermis; have internal & external parts, thins as it approached the hair bulb so that only single layers of cells cover papilla epithelial root sheath
tubular epithelial sheath that surrounds lower part of hair shaft & encloses at bottom a vascular papilla supplying growing basal part of hair w/nourishment hair follicle
terminal hair grows in response to stimulating effects of __ and when these hormones are present in large amounts, terminal hair growth is luxuriant androgens
most important influencing factors for hair growth & density nutrition & hormones
poor nutrition means poor __ __ hair growth
conditions that increase local dermal blood flow, such as chronic physical irritation or inflammation, may __ local hair growth enhance
excessive hairiness, may result from adrenal gland or ovarian tumor that secrete abnormally large amounts of androgens hirsutism
in each __ __, an active phase, ranging from weeks to years, is followed by a recessive phase growth cycle
hair matrix cells die & follicle base & hair bulb shrivel somewhat, dragging hair papilla upward to abut region of follicle that does not regress regressive phase
phase after regressive phase, 1-3 months resting phase
after resting phase, cycling part of follicle regenerates & activate bulge cells migrate toward papilla; matrix proliferates again & forms new hair to replace old one that fell out/will be pushed out by new hair active phase
follicles of scalp remain active for 6-10 years before becoming __ for a few months inactive
baldness alopecia
true, or frank, baldness; genetically determined, sex-influenced condition male pattern baldness
immune system attacks follicles & hair falls out in patches alopecia areata
proximal nail fold projects onto nail body as cuticle/eponychium
region beneath free ridge of nail, where dirt & debris tend to accumulate hyponychium
yellow-tinged nails may indicate respiratory or thyroid disorders
yellow-tinged nails combined with thickening of nail, may indicate nail fungus infection
outward concavity of nail (spoon nail) may signal iron deficiency
horizontal lines (Beau's lines) across nail may hint of malnutrition
low pH of skin secretions is called acid mantle
wounded skin releases large quantities of protective peptides, particularly effective in preventing infection by group A streptococcus bacteria, called cathelicidins
lipid-soluble substances, oleoresins, organic solvents, salts of heavy metals, selected drugs, penetration enhancers can all penetrate skin
certain plants, such as poison ivy & oak, emit oleoresins
acetone, dry-cleaning fluid, & paint thinner, which dissolve cell lipids, are all organic solvents
drug agents that help ferry other drugs into body penetration enhancers
passage of organic solvents through skin into blood can cause __ to shut down & __ damage kidneys; brain
absorption of lead results in anemia & neurological defects
respond to stimuli arising outside body; cutaneous sensory receptors exteroreceptors
scaling & various kinds of skin inflammation dermatitis
produce a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective qualities keratinocytes
responsible for skin pigmentation melanocytes
sensory receptor for touch Merkel cells
present antigens to killer T lymphocyte Langerhans' cells
single row of cells composed of keratinocyte stem cells, melanocytes, & Merkel cells Stratum basale
several cell layers thick, w/intermediate filaments, keratinocytes & Langerhans' cells Stratum spinosum
3-5 layers of flattened keratinocytes possessing filaments, keratohyaline, & lamellated granules Stratum granulosum
thin, translucent band consisting of a few rows of flat, dead, keratinocytes Stratum lucidum
many cell layers of dead keratinocytes filled w/keratin (outermost layer of skin) Stratum corneum
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium epidermis
adipose connective tissue hypodermis
areolar connective tissue papillary layer of dermis
dense irregular connective tissue reticular layer of dermis
which mechanism provides a chemical barrier and a mechanical barrier to ward off bacterial invasion and to provide "waterproofing" protection
which mechanism provides dilation of blood vessels and secretion of sweat that evaporates from body surface body temp regulation
which mechanism provides activation of numerous receptors that are part of the nervous system cutaneous sensation
which mechanism provides synthesis of vitamin D; destruction of cancer-causing chemicals; activation of some steroid hormones metabolic functions
which mechanism provides potential to hold about 5% of the body's blood volume in numerous blood vessels blood reservoir
red hemoglobin
yellow-orange carotene
blue cyanosis
ranges from yellow-reddish-brown-black melanin
portion of the hair that is embedded in the skin root
superficial covering of a hair consisting of a single layer of cells that overlap one another cuticle
region of a hair that projects above the skin surface shaft
central core of a hair, consisting of large cells and air spaces medulla
intermediate layer of a hair composed of several layers of flattened cells cortex
actively dividing cellular area of the bulb that produces the hair hair matrix
superficial wall of the hair follicle which is derived from the dermis connective tissue root sheath
expanded, deep region of a hair follicle hair bulb
knot of sensory nerve endings wrapped around the base of a hair follicle root hair plexus
bundle of smooth muscle tissue running from superficial dermis - hair follicle; produces goose bumps arrector pili
found all over body except palms & soles sebaceous glands
most abundant on palms, soles, & forehead eccrine sudoriferous glands
axillary, anal, & genital regions apocrine sudoriferous glands
line the external ear canal ceruminous glands
pectoral region mammary glands
integumentary system glands product of oil sebaceous
integumentary system glands product of sweat eccrine sudoriferous
integumentary system glands product consisting of components of sweat plus fatty substances and proteins apocrine sudoriferous
integumentary system glands product consisting of components of earwax ceruminous gland
integumentary system glands product of milk mammary
nail structure that is visible, attached part of nail body
nail structure that is epidermis on which nail rests nail bed
nail structure that is proximal region of nail, embedded in skin root
nail structure that is distal edge of nail free edge
nail structure that is actively growing part of nail nail matrix
nail structure that is white, crescent-shaped area under nail's proximal region lunula
burns damage to only epidermis that results in redness, swelling, & pain first-degree
burns with injury to epidermis & superficial region of dermis resulting in redness, swelling, pain, & blisters second-degree
burns where entire thickness of skin consumed, resulting in burned area appearing white, red, or blackened third-degree
least malignant form of skin cancer; stratum basale cells proliferate & invade dermis & hypodermis, causing tissue destruction basal cell carcinoma
arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum w/lesions appearing as scaly, irregular, reddened small, rounded elevations that grow rapidly & metastasize if NOT removed squamous cell carcinoma
"most dangerous form" skin cancer; highly metastatic & can originate wherever there is pigment, but often arises from existing moles, metastasizing rapidly into surrounding circulatory vessels melanoma
two halves of a spot or a mole do NOT match asymmetry
pigmented spot possesses notches & indentations border irregularity
inconsistent pigmentation color
larger than 6 mm diameter
rises above the skin surface elevation
rare condition where hair follicles are attacked by immune system, causing the hair to fall out in patches Alopecia areata
fluid-filled, raised lesions, common around mouth & nose, that develop a yellow crust & eventually rupture; contagious Impetigo
large, unsightly mass of scar tissue at skin surface produced by excessive & prolonged proliferation of connective tissue during healing of skin wounds keloid
chronic inflammatory condition, resulting from over proliferation of epidermis; characterized by reddened epidermal papules covered with dry, silvery scales psoriasis
causes yellowing of skin, especially in palms & soles from accumulation in stratum corneum when consumed in large amounts too much carotene
increased production of melanin due to increased exposure to sun tanning
yellowish to pale-green coloring of skin caused by an accumulation of bile pigments in blood jaundice
possible heart failure; possible respiratory disorders cyanosis
fever, hypertension, polycythemia, inflammation, allergy redness or erythema
fear, anger, stress, anemia, low blood pressure pallor or blanching
liver disorder jaundice
Addison's disease; hypofunction of adrenal cortex bronzing
blood clots beneath the skin black & blue marks/bruises
secrete hypotonic filtrate of blood (99% water w/traces of salt, vitamin C, antibodies, metabolic wastes & lactic acid) Eccrine sweat glands
contains same secretions as true sweat, plus fatty substances & proteins. When these organic molecules decompose by bacterial action there is an associated unpleasant odor Apocrine sweat glands
modified apocrine glands that secrete earwax Ceruminous glands
modified sweat glands that secrete milk Mammary glands
holocrine glands that secrete an oily substance called sebum to lubricate skin and hair Sebaceous glands
maximum production of melanin black hair
no production of melanin; no iron-containing pigment blonde hair
absence of melanin; presence of iron-containing pigment red hair
replacement of melanin with air bubbles in the hair shaft as melanin production decreases white hair
presence of vernix caseosa produced by sebaceous glands newborn baby
skin thickens and more subcutaneous fat is deposited infancy & childhood
skin and hair become oilier as sebaceous glands are activated; dermatitis becomes more common adolescence
epidermal cell replacement declines; skin thins; sebaceous gland activity diminishes old age
body hair of children and adult females vellus hair
coarser, long, darker hairs terminal hairs
loss of hair alopecia
genetically predetermined balding male pattern baldness
hypodermic needle would first pass through __ , then two layers of __, the papillary layer and the reticular layer, before penetrating the hypodermis epidermis; dermis
sebaceous glands are belong to which class simple branch alveolar
terminal hair is located in all of the following areas, except the body hair of females
dermis is primarily composed of dense irregular connective tissue
epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue
primary function of melanin is to provide protection against sun's UV rays
correct sequence of epidermal layers of thick skin, deep to superficial stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
NOT derivatives of the epidermis dermal papillae
dermis possesses all the cells that one would expect to find in __ __; mast cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, & scattered WBCs connective tissues
epidermis component possessing waterproofing glycolipid that functions in preventing water loss lamellated granules
lamellated granules contain waterproofing __, secreted into __ __ & is major factor for slowing water loss across the epidermis glycolipid; intercellular space
human integumentary system glands is believed to be analogous to the sexual scent glands of an animal apocrine sudoriferous gland
most important in determining skin coloration melanin
hypodermis, deep to skin, shares some of the skin's functions; it is not a part of integumentary system
protection/insulation, excretion, preventing water loss, & regulation of body temperature skin functions
first-degree burns are not considered critical because they typically heal in a few days without any special attention
most immediate threat to life from a serious burn loss of body fluids
immediate threat to life from serious burns is catastrophic loss of body fluids, which can lead to fatal circulatory shock
strata is absent in thin skin lucidum
stratum lucidum appears in __ __ but not in thin skin thick skin
structures are primarily responsible for fingerprints epidermal ridges and sweat pores
thick skin strata that is the thickest corneum
person who experiences sudden flushing of skin, especially on nose/cheeks, may be in early stages of rosacea
in conjunction w/intake of alcohol, spicy foods, or after hot bath/sun exposure rosacea can worsen
layer of skin that relies on capillaries in underlying connective tissue of dermis for nutrients epidermis
same bacterium that causes peptic ulcers possible cause of rosacea
cell that is part of the immune system Langerhans'
Langerhans' cell is a(n) __ __ fixed macrophage
keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum are known as prickle cells
__ in the skin are caused by dermal tears striae
will cause clumping of elastin fibers in dermis & cause skin to become leathery overexposure to UV light
condition that would not be seen from overexposure to UV light activation of the immune system
appears as black and blue marks hematoma in the skin
wounded skin releases large quantities of __ __ that help prevent some infections protective peptides
surgical incision performed on forearm will __ __ __ if incision is made along longitudinal plane rather than transverse plane heal more readily
Because __ __ __ run longitudinally in skin of limbs, incision made parallel to these will result in skin gaping less & healing more readily lines of cleavage
epidermis is __ and relies on capillaries in the underlying connective tissue for its nutrients avascular
account for 5% of all the blood in the body dermal blood vessels
sweat is produced as secretions pass through secretory cells of sweat glands by the process of __, leaving secretory cells __ exocytosis; intact
dermal blood vessels not only __, reducing heat loss, but __ __ __ , allowing heat to radiate from body contract; engorge with blood
can correctly be referred to as subcutaneous layer as well as superficial fascia hypodermis
main function of our sparse body hair is to sense things that lightly touch our skin
vitamin D, important in uptake of calcium, is produced in skin from modified cholesterol molecules
to conserve body heat, constriction of blood vessels in dermis causes warm blood to bypass the skin temporarily
new skin lotions have been developed that can __ __ __ before the cells develop into cancer cells "fix" damaged DNA
dermis contains two __ __ areas histologically separate
sensory detection tactile cells
skin anchoring hypodermis
protection from UV radiation melanin
dermal papillae were missing then friction ridges would be absent
Created by: lfrancois



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