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SGU: Development

Anatomy of Development

Define embryo Developing human during early stages of development
Define zygote following fertilization
Define morula 12-32 blastomeres. embryo enters uterine tube
Define conceptus Entire products of fertilazation, embryo and placenta
Define primordium beginning of discernable organ or structure
Define fetus After embryo/8 weeks
Define capacitation destabilization of acrosome head following ejaculation in vagina
Describe fertilization 1.sperm releases acrosin to digest zona pellucida 2. zona reaction occurs 3. fusion of PMs 4. oocyte completes meiosis II 5.formation of male pronucleus
What is the pronuclei? 2 haploid nuclei within fertilized egg before they fuse together.
What is Dispermy? two sperms paricipate in fertilization = triploidy
What happens to triploid embryos? appear normal but abort spontaneously. triploid infants that are born die soon.
Define syngamy Chromosomes of parents mix
What are the results of fertilisation restoration of diploid, sex determination, initiation of cleavage
Define blastomere dividing cells which becomes smaller following fertilization
Define compaction: following 8-cell stage the blastomeres aligns against e/o
Describe the parts of a morula embryoblast-inner cell mass, tropoblast-outer cell mass.
What gives rise to the placent? trophoblast
Define blastocyst zona pellucida degenerates and blastocyst cavity forms filled with uterine fluid
Describe the layers of a trophoblast following implantation Cytotrophoblast-inner layer of cells, syncytiotrophoblast-outer layer extending through endometrial epithelium
What hormone forms the basis for a pregnancy test? human chorionic gonadotropin released by syncytiotrophoblast
What happens to the embryoblast following implantation? forms embyonic disk with two layers-epiblast and hypoblast
Define decidual cells uterine cells filled with glycogen and mucous that degrade and provide a source of nurishment for synctiotrophoblast.
Define amniotic cavity a small cavity that appears in the embryoblast in the epiblast
Where is the exocoelomic cavity and membrane found and what does this part become? inside hypoblast, membrane=hypoblast. Becomes the primary umbilical vesicle/yolk sac.
Define the extraembryonic coelom Surrounds amnion and umbilical vesicle except where attached to chorion
What is derived from the extraembryonic coelom? chorionic cavity
Define connecting stalk where extraembryonic mesoderm traverses through the chorionic cavity to develop into umbilical cord.
Define secondary yolk sac primitive yolk sac formed when cells from the hypoblast migrate inside exocoelomic membrane.
Define ectopic pregnancy blastocyst implants in the uterine tube
What constitutes the 'morning after pill' high doses of estrogen to prevent implantation
Describe gastrulation bilaminar disk becomes trilaminar disk. The epiblast and hypoblast give rise to ecto, endo and meso-derm
What are the steps of gastrulation 1.primitive streak formation 2.epiblast cells migrate to primitive streak 3. epiblast cells invaginate spreading between epiblast and hypoblast 4. endo, meso and ecto-derm form from epiblast, hypoblast dissolves
Describe the notochord formation invagination of epiblast cells to form primitive pit, intercalate with hypoblast and proliferate and detach to form notochord
What are the 3 divisions of the mesoderm? lateral, intermediate, paraxial
What does the lateral mesoderm give rise to? visceral and parietal layer
What does the intermediate mesoderm give rise to? urogenital system
What does the paraxial mesoderm give rise to? somites-sclerotome, myotome, dermatome
What are the two types of folding the embyro undergoes? lateral-disc, cephalocaudal - head and tail
Created by: mnoronha