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Ch.10/MED 127

Endocrine System

The endocrine system secretes? Hormones
Endocrine glands secrete directly into the? Blood stream or interstitial space
Endocrine glands do not have? Ducts
What are chemicals that bring about a change in the body? Hormones
Hormones hace specific affects on certain structures called? Target organs or target tissues
What are variations of the AA tryosine? Amines
Thyroxine is a? Amines
What is a subgroup of amines? Catecholamines
Catecholamines include? Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Long chains of amino acids are? Proteins
Proteins include? Insulin, growth hormone, calcitonin
What are in the same category of proteins, but shorter chains? Peptides
Peptides include? ADH and oxytocin
What are cholesterol derivatives? Steroids
Steroids include? Cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
Growth hormone is secreted from the? Anterior pituitary
Calcitonin is secreted from the? Thyroid gland
Cortisol and aldosterone are secreted from the? Adrenal cortex
Estrogen and progesterone are secreted from the? Ovaries
Testosterone is secreted from the? Testes
In men, LH stimulates secretion of testosterone by the? Testes
Cells of endocrine glands respond to? Chemical changes, other hormone, or nervous system stimulation
During a negative feedback, when a hormone brings about its affect, the hormone is? Inhibited from being released
What hormones are released in order to cause other hormones to be released? Releasing hormones
Anterior pituitary hormones are released by? Releasing hormones
Some hormones have an ____________ that affects tissues in an opposite way? Antagonistic pair
Pituitary gland is also called? Hypophysis
The pituitary gland hangs by short stalk called the? infundibulum
The pituitary gland hangs by short stalk called the infundibulum from the? Hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is enclosed in the? Sella Turcica (Turkish saddle)
The pituitary gland is enclosed in Sella Turcica in the? Sphenoid bone
What gland is pea-sized? Pituitary gland
What gland regulates many body functions? Pituitary gland
What gland is divided into two parts, anterior and posterior? Pituitary gland
The posterior pituitary is also known as? Neurohypophysis
The posterior pituitary extends from the? Nerve tissue of the hypothalamus
What two hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary? ADH, oxytocin
What hormone helps maintain blood pressure? ADH
ADH is what type of hormone? Peptide
The hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is? ADH
Increased secretion of ADH will _________ urinary output? Decrease
Release of ADH is stimulated by? Decrease water concentration in the blood
Release of ADH is stimulated by decrease water concentration in the blood monitored by? Osmoreceptor in hypothalamus
Hypothalamus transmits nerve impulses through the _______________ to the posterior pituitary to increase ADH secretion? Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Alcohol intake will _________ ADH secretion? Decrease
During major blood loss ADH is released in larger amounts and causes? Vasoconstriction
Thirst and dizziness result and are called a? Hangover
What kind of hormone is oxytocin? Peptide
Oxytocin stimulates? Uterine contractions
The effect of oxytocin on the uterus is to cause? Contractions
Toward the end of pregnancy, oxytocin is released from the? Placenta
Infant suckling stimulates the? Hypothalamus
Infant suckling triggers oxytocin release from the pituitary which triggers? Milk release or let down
The anterior pituitary is also called? Adenohypophysis
Anterior pituitary is made of? Glandular tissue
Anterior pituitary is regulated by? Releasing hormones
In the anterior pituitary, releasing hormones are secreted through the? Hypophyseal portal system
Anterior pituitary is regulated by releasing hormones from the? Hypothalamus
GH is also known as? Growth hormone or somatotropin
What hormone promotes growth? GH
GH stimulates cells to produce? IGFs (Insulin-like Growth Factor)
What are intermediary molecules that bring about the functions of GH? IGFs
What hormone increases the transport of amino acids into cells? GH
GH increases the rate of? Protein synthesis
GH insures that AA's are used for? Protein synthesis
What hormone stimulates mitosis? GH
GH stimulates mitosis for? Growth and repair
GH aids in converting lipids to? Carbohydrates
Lipids are? Fats
Carbohydrates are? Sugars
What hormone is active in all ages? GH
GH is regulated by 2 releasing hormones from the hypothalamus called? GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) and somatostatin
GHRH _________ secretion of GH? Increases
GHRH is produced during? Hypoglycemia and exercise
Somatostatin is also known as? GHIH (Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone)
What hormone decreases secretion of GH? Somatostatin
High levels of AAs in the blood also stimulate secretion of? GH
TSH is also known as? Thyroid stimulating hormone or Thyroidtropin
TSH stimulates release of? Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
TSH stimulates release of T4 and T3 from the? Thyroid gland
TSH secretion is stimulated by? Thyroidtropin releasing hormone (TRH)
TSH secretion is stimulated by TRH from the? Hypothalamus
What hormone is produced when metabolic rate slows? TRH
ACTH stands for? Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH stimulates release of hormones from the? Adrenal cortex
Secretion of ACTH is increased by? Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
ACTH secretion is increased by CRH from the? Hypothalamus
What hormone is produced during physical stress? CRH
Prolactin initiates and maintains milk? Production
What hormone initiates and maintains milk production? Prolactin
What hormone increases secretion of Prolactin? Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)
What hormone decreases secretion of Prolactin? Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
FSH stands for? Follicle stimulating hormone
In women, FSH stimulates the growth of? Ovarian follicles
Im men, FSH stimulates the growth of? Sperm production
What hormone increases secretion of FSH? Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What gland is located anterior and bilateral to the trachea? Thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is located anterior and bilateral to the? Trachea
The 2 lobes of the thyroid are connected via the? Isthmus
Structural units of the thyroid are called? Thyroid follicles
Thyroid follicles produces? T3 and T4
T3 contains 3 ________ molecules? Iodine
T4 contains 4 ________ molecules? Iodine
What is an enlarged thyroid called? Goiter
What 2 hormones increases energy production (from food) and protein synthesis? T3 and T4
Release of T3 and T4 is stimulated by? TSH
Release of T3 and T4 is stimulated by TSH from the? Anterior pituitary
Calcitonin decreases? Blood calcium
Calcitonin increases? Bone mineralization
Calcitonin maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate by? Decreasing reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood
By decreasing reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood, blood levels are? Lowered
Calcitonin is stimulated by? Hypercalcemia
What are the 2 glands on the posterior of each lobe of the thyroid gland? Parathyroid glands
PTH stands for? Parathyroid hormone
PTH is antagonist to calcitonin, thus it _________ blood calcium and phosphate? Increases
What hormone targets the bones, small intestines, and kidneys? PTH
PTH ________ mineralization and absorption of food? Decreases
PTH is stimulated by? Hypocalcemia
The pancreas is located mainly in the? LUQ
The pancreas is both? Endocrine and exocrine
The functional unit of the pancreas are? Pancreatic/Islets of Langerhans
Pancreatic/Islets of Langerhans are made up of 2 types of cells called? Alpha cells and Beta cells
Alpha cells produce? Glucagon
Beta cells produce? Insulin
What stimulates the liver to begin glycogenolysis and use lipids and AAs for energy by glucogenesis? Glucagon
Glucagon stimulates the liver to begin _________ and use lipids and AAs for energy by ____________? Glycogenolysis, glucogenesis
Glucogenesis is? Sugar production
Glucagon is stimulated by? Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia is? Low blood sugar
What does insulin do to the blood sugar? Decreases blood sugar
What decreases blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating glycogenesis? Insulin
Insulin decreases blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating _________ in the liver and muscles? Glycogenesis
Insulin is stimulated by? Hyperglycemia
What 3 organs do not need insulin to absorb glucose? Brain, liver, and kidneys
Adrenal glands are also called? Suprarenal glands
Adrenal glands are located? On the top of each kidney
The adrenal glands are located into 2 parts? Cortex and medulla
The adrenal medulla is ____________, mimic (& prolong) the effects of the sympathetic NS? Sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic is stimulated by the? SNS
Adrenal medulla secretes? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine is known as? Adrenalin
Norepinephrine is? Norepinephrine
What is a subclass of amines called? Catecholamines
Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine during _________ situations? Stressful
Norepinephrine is released in _______ amounts? Small
What causes vasoconstriction in the skin, viscera, and skeletal muscle? Norepinephrine
Epinephrine is secreted in ______ amounts? Large
What increases heart rate and force of contraction? Epinephrine
Epinephrine causes vaso________ in skin and viscera? Constriction
Epinephrine causes vaso________ in skeletal muscles? Dilation
Epinephrine will ______ bronchioles? Dilate
Epinephrine wil ________ peristalsis? Decrease
Epinephrine ________ glycogenolysis? Stimulates
Epinephrine ________ glucogenesis from lipids? Stimulates
Epinephrine ________ cell respiration Inreases
Epinephrine is stronger than the? SNS
The adrenal cortex secretes 3 types of steroid hormones called? Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones
The sex hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex include? Estrogen (female) and androgens (male)
Sex hormones are produced in _____ amounts? Small
Aldosterone is a? Mineralocorticoid
What is the most abundant mineralocorticoid? Aldosterone
Aldosterone primarily targets the? Kidneys
Aldosterone primarily targets the kidneys to increase reabsorption of? Na+
H+ are exchanged for Na+ and raises? Blood pH
Negative ions (Cl- and HCO3-) follow Na+ and cause water to follow by setting up a concentration gradient to ________ blood volume and BP? Increases
In the renin-angiotensin mechanism, the kidneys secrete _________ when BP decreases? Renin
Renin causes the plasma protein ___________ to be made? Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II causes? Vasoconstriction
Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and the adrenal cortex to release? Aldosterone
Renin-angiotensin mechanism _________ BP? Increases
Cortisol is released from the? Adrenal cortex
Cortisol is a? Glucocorticoid
Glucose-sparing increases _________ from lipids and excess AAs Glucogenesis
Cortisol ensures that available glucose gets used by the? Brain
Can brain cells convert other molecules into glucose like other tissue types? NO
Cortisol is an anti-________? Anti-inflammatory
An anti-inflammatory blocks? Histamine
What increases capillary permeability and allows lysozymes to spread? Histamine
Corticosteroids are modeled after? Cortisol
Cortisol is released during? Times of physical or psychological stress
ACTH is released from the? Anterior pituitary
CRH increases ACTH which increases? Cortisol
CRH is released from the? Hypothalamus
Is estrogen a steroid? Yes
What is secreted from the follicle cells and the placenta during pregnancy? Estrogen
Estrogen is increased by? FSH
Estrogen promotes maturation of the? Ovum and the endometrium
Estrogen promotes secondary characteristics in? Women
Secondary sex characters in women include? Growth of the duct system in the mammary gland, growth of the uterus, and deposition of fat tissue in hips and thighs.
Estrogen lowers? Blood cholesterol and triglycerides
In men, _________ is converted to estrogen? Testosterone
In men, testosterone is converted to? Estrogen
Is progesterone a steroid? Yes
Progesterone is secreted from the? Corpus luteum and the placenta during pregnancy
What is secreted from the corpus luteum and the placenta during pregnancy? Progesterone
The functions of progesterone incude? Promotes glycogenesis, maturation of the endometrium and development of the secretory cells of the mammary glands.
Is inhibin a protein? Yes
What decreases FSH and GnRH? Inhibin
Estrogen is produced in the? Ovaries
Testosteron is produced in the? Testes
Is testosteron a hormone? Yes
Testosterone is secreted by? Interstitial cells
Testosterone is stimulated by? LH
The functions of testosterone include? Promotes sperm maturation, secondary sex characteristics in men, facial and body hair, enlargement of the larynx, and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle
Inhibin is secreted by? Sustentacular/Sertoli cells
Inhibin is stimulated by? Testosterone
Inhibin decreases? FSH
What is produced in the pineal gland? Melatonin
The pineal gland is located? Posterior to the 3rd ventricle
Melatonin is increased during? Darkness
The function of melatonin is to? Stimulate sleep and increase duration
Prostiglandins (PG) are made in virtually all cells from? Phospholipids of their cell membrane
Prostiglandins are local meaning? They do no circulate in the blood
There are 9 types (PGA-PG1) and subtypes (1,2 etc.) of? Prostiglandins
The functions of prostiglandins include? Increase or decrease inflammation, vasodilation or vasoconstriction, uterus contraction, increasing pain, clotting, reproduction, & digestive gland secretion increase
Hormones bond to receptors on? Target cells
Only target cells have the? Receptors
Receptors are in the? Membrane, cytoplasm, or nucleus
The two messenger mechanism is only with? Protein hormones
During the first messenger, protein hormones bond to? Suface receptors on the membrane
The enzyme adenyl cyclase is activated in the _______ surface? Inner
Adenyl cyclase activates _______ -the second messenger? cAMP (cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate)
What causes a response specific to the cell based on enzymes within the cell? cAMP
T or F? cAMP causes changes in membrane permeability to specific substances? True
T or F? cAMP causes an increase in translation? True
T or F? cAMP causes an activation of other enzymes? True
T or F? cAMp causes secretion of cellular products? True
Steroids are lipid soluble therefore they? Diffuse through the cell membrane
Steroid hormones combine with receptors in the? Cytoplasm
The steroid-protein complex enters the? Nuclues
Steroid hormones activates specific? Genes
Steroid hormones activates specific genes to initiate________ and then? Transcription, translation
Created by: laceylake
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