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Skeleton Bones 7

Ch. 7 A&P

What are the functions of the bone? serve as a framework for the entire body. To protect structures as the brain and the spinal cord. To work as levers with muscles to produce movement. to store calcium salts. produce blood cells (red marrow)
What is a haversian canal? channel in the center of an osteon (haversian system), a subunit of compact bone, contains nerves and blood vessels.
Where is red marrow found? at the ends of the long bones and at the center of other bones.
What is collagen? flexible white protein that gives strength and resilience to connective tissue, such as bone or cartilage.
What are osteoclasts? cells that break down bone.
What are epiphyseal plates? secondary bone-forming centers that develop across the ends of the bones (growth plate). Long bones continue to grow in length through childhood and into late teens.
What is a foramen? hole that allows a vessel or a nerve to pass through or between bones.
What is a sinus? an air space found in some skull bones.
What is a fosoa? a depression on a bone surface.
What is meatus? short channel or passageway.
What is the cranium? rounded chamber that encloses the brain.
Frontal bone forms the forehead
Two parietal bones form most of the top and the side walls of the cranium.
ethmoid bone is a light, fragile bone between the eyes.
spheniod bone lies at the base of the skull anterior to the temporal bones and forms part of the eye socket.
occipital bone forms the skulls posterior (back) and part of its base.
foramen magnum located at the base of the occipital bone, a large opening through which the spinal cord communicates with the brain.
suture unites the skull bones, is a flat immovable joint.
Fontanels (soft spot) the largest and most recognizable is near the front of the skull at the junction of the parietal bones and the frontal bone. closes around 18 months of age.
sacrum sacral vertebrae are five seperate bones in a child, these fuse together to form the sacrum in the adult. wedged between the two hip bones, completes the posterior (back) part of the bony pelvis.
Which curve appears as the baby holds its head up about three months of age? cervical curve
Which curve appears as the child begins to walk? lumbar curve
True ribs first 7 pair, attack directly to the sternum by means of individual extensions called costal cartilages.
Shoulder girdle consists of two bones, the clavicle and the scapula.
scapula is the shoulder blade
How many phalanges are there? 14, two for the thumb and three for each finger.
How does the female pelvis differ from the males? -lighter in weight -ilia are wider and more flared -pubic arch is wider -pelvic opening is wider and more rounded -lower diameter is larger -sacrum and coccyx are shorter and less curved.
Greater trochanter large lateral projection near the head of the femur, used as a surface landmark.
Patella kneecap, is embedded in the tendon of the large anterior thigh muscle.
Calcaneous heel bone
Tibia big toe side
Fibula toward the outside
Ulna the medial bone of forearm, in line with the little finger.
Radius lies laterally, above the thumb.
What is osteitis deformans (Pagets diseas)? abnormal calcium metabolism, the bones undergo periods of calcium loss followed by periods of excessive deposition of calcium salts.
What tumors are malignant in bone tissues and cartilage? osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas
Tuberculosis may spread to bones especially the long bones of the extremeties and the wrist and ankle bones.
What is a greenstick fracture? one side of the bone is broken and the other is bent. Most common in children.
Changes in what column with age lead to a loss in height of approximately 1.2cm (0.5inches) every 20 years beginning at the age of 40? vertebral column
Fibrous joint the bones in this type of joint are held together by fibrous connective tissue, this type of joint is immovable.
An immovable joint is called? synarthrosis
Diarthrosis synovial joint is freely movable.
bone surfaces in freely movable joints are protected by a smooth layer of hyaline cartilage called what? articular cartilage
Synovial joints are classified according to the types of movement they allow. List them from order of increasing range to decreasing range. -gliding joint -hinge joint -pivot joint -condyloid joint -saddle joint -ball and socket joint
Movement that requires a combination of all four angular movements is called? circumduction
Twisting and turning of a bone on it own axis is referred to what? Rotation, as in turning the head from side to side.
What flexion has the toes point downward, as in a toe dancing, flexing the arch of the foot? plantar flexion
Septic arthritis arises when bacteria spread to involve joint tissue, usually by way of bloodstream.
What are some of the causes of common complaints about back aches? -diseases of the vertebrae (infections, tumors...) -disorders of the intervertebral disks -abnormalities of the lower vertebrae or of the ligaments -disorders involving abdominopelvic organs -strains on the lumbosacral joint
Created by: 100000593161945



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