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A&PII Lecture

As blood volume goes up, so does _______________. arteriole pressure
Where is ADH produced? posterior pituitary
What does vasoconstriction do? Narrows blood vessels.
DTC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) widespread clotting occurs in intact bld. vssls & residual bld becomes unable to clot. Blockage of bld flow followed by severe bleeding. Commonly seen as pregnancy complication, as result of septicimia, or incompatible bld transfusion.
HDN (Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn) Occurs when a mom who needed RhoGAM treatment didn't get it & later became pregnant with an Rh+ baby. Moms antibodies cross thru placenta & destroy babies RBC. Baby can become anemic, hypoxic, brain damage, or death unless transfusions are done b4 birth.
RhoGAM injection Injection of anti-Rh antibodies given soon after every delivery, miscarriage, & abortion. Binds & inactivates fetal Rh antigens so moms immune system doesnt respond.
Another name for Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn is____________ _______ Erythroblastocis Fetalis
Hemochromatosis Inherited disorder of iron overload b/c intestines absorb too much iron from diet. Iron builds up in tissues where it oxidizes to form compounds that poison those organs (espc. joints, liver, & pancreas).
Thrombocytopenia # of circulating platelets is deficient. Causes spontaneous bleeding from sml bld vssls all over body. Even normal mvmnts lead to widespread hemorrhage.See sml purplish spots on skin called Petechiae.
Causes of Thrombocytopenia Can arise from any condition that supresses or destroys red bone marrow. Platelet count of under 50,000 /ul of bld is usually diagnostic. Transfusions of concentrated platelets give temp relief from bleeding.
Varicose Veins Veins that have become tortuous & dialated b/c of incompetent (leaky) valves. Usually in lower limbs
Contributing factors for Varicose Veins Heredity, conditions that hinder venous return such as prolonged standing in 1 position, obesity, pregnancy, elevated venous pressure (straining to deliver baby or bowl movement)
What are varicosities that result from raised intra-abdominal pressure that prevented bld from draining from the veins of the anal canal called? Hemorrhoids
Aneurysm Balloon like out-pocketing of an artery wall; puts artery at risk for rupture; often reflects gradual weakening of the artery by chronic hypertension or arteriosclerosis. Common sites are abdominal aorta & arteries feeding brain & kidneys.
Thrombophlebitis Condition of undesirable intravascular clotting initiated by a roughening of a venous lining. Often follows severe episode of phlebitis. Dangerous b/c clot may detach & form an embolus.
Hypertension High BP; may be transient or persistant. Transient occurs as normal adaptations during fever, physical exertion, & emotional upset. Persistent is common in obese ppl for a variety of reasons that arent completely understood.
Cor Pulmonale Right sided heart failure resulting from elevated BP in the pulmonary circuit (pulmonary hypertension). Acute cases may dev suddenly due to a pulmonary embolism. Chronic ones usually assoc. w/chronic lung disorders such as emphysema.
Pericarditis Inflamm. of pericardium, roughens serous mmbrns surfaces.Deep pain to sternum. Beating <3 rubs agnst peric sac & makes a creaking sound what u can hear w/stethoscope. May lead to adhesions (visceral & parietal pericardia stick 2gether & impede <3 activity
Myocardial Infarction <3 attack; Can be caused by prolonged coronary blockage. B/C adult cardiac mscl is basically amiotic, most areas of cell death r repaired w/noncontractile scar tissue. Survival depends on extent & location of dmage. LV(systemic pump) dmage is most serious
-cyte mature cell
How many hemoglobins are in 1 RBC? 250 million
RBC - 5 million/___ cc (cubic centimeters)
What gives a RBC it's identity? glycoprotein antigens, A & B
Systole Ventricles contract (120-140); happens during depolarization; atria during P; ventricles during QRS
Diastole Ventricles relax (70-90);happens during repolarization; Atria QRS; Ventricles relax during T
Korotkoff Sounds Heard when taking bld. pressure. As cuff pressure is reduced they become louder.
What is Hematopoiesis? Blood cell formation; occurs in the red bone marrow
Name the 3 WBC's that are granulocytes & what do they all have in common? Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils; all are phagocytic
Name the 2 WBC's that are agranulocytes: Monocytes & Lymphocytes
Define Arteries Vessel with relatively thick walls with blood under highest pressure - carry blood away from the heart.
3 Tissue layers of arteries & arteroles: (lumen-inner)Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, Tunica Externa
Tunica Intima inner layer;endothelial (simp squamous) continuous cells line the entire cardiovasc. system;basement membrane in lrgr vessels;elastic fibers in CT-eternal elastic lamina
Where are the fenestrations (pores) of the fenestrated capillary not covered? Kidneys
Tunica Media middle layer;elastin fibers & smooth muscle determine the diameter of lumen;smooth muscle w/sheets of elastin;bulkiest layer;vasodialation & vasoconstriction.
Tunica Externa outer layer;elastin in lrgr arteries;collagen is loosely woven which protects & reinforces the vesserl & anchors it to surrounding structures.
What is the blood supply for arteries & arterioles? Vasa Vasorum: Blood vessels providing blood flow to the cells in walls of lrg vessels.
What does RAA stand for? Renin (enzyme), Angiotensin (hormone), Aldosterone (hormone)
What is the most common protein? Albumin, ex: egg white
Elastic Arteries Help to propel bld even when V's are relaxed; very close to <3; accomodate surge of bld & funct as pressure reservoir; elas fibers recoil pushing bld forward; potential->kinetic; more pressure=more elastin than any vessel;looks like swiss cheese
What does ANP stand for? Atrial Narieuretic Peptide
The more protons you have the more Ph ___________. Decreases
The sinusodal capillary has an incomplete basement membrane & a _____ _______ wide lumen
List the elements of the intrinsic conduction system in order, starting from the SA node: SA node(sinoatrial)->AV node(atrioventricular)->atrioventricular bundle->left & right bundle branches->purkinje fibers
At what structure in the transmission sequence is the impulse temorarily delayed & why? AV Node; to allow the atria their contraction before initiation of ventricular systole (pause for approx 0.1 sec)
Define Tachycardia: A heart rate over 100 beats per min
Define Brachycardia: A heart rate below 60 beats per min
Define Fibrillation: Rapid uncoordinated heart contractions; makes heart useless as a pump;
Define Cardiac Cycle: Equivalent to 1 heartbeat; when both atria & ventricles contract & then relax.
What effect does increased diameter of the arterioles have on BP? Decreases BP
What effect does increased blood viscosity have on BP? Increases BP
What effect does increased cardiac output have on BP? Increases BP
What effect does a hemorrhage have on BP? Decreases BP
What effect does arteriosclerosis have on BP? Increases BP
What effect does increased pulse rate have on BP? Increases BP
What is the longest vein in the body & is not superficial? RL Great Saphenous
Which arteries send blood directly to the lungs, bronchi, & pleurae? RL Bronchial arteries; R-1, L-2
What organs does the celiac trunk serve? Liver, spleen, stomach, gallbladder, esophagus
Strawberry Demonstration Putting sugar on strawberries creates a hypertonic environment causing juice to come out. This is osmosis, more solute-greater osmotic pressure; hypo-hyper;po-per
What do elastic arteries do help propel bld even when V are relaxed
Which arteries are distributors? Muscular; distribute blood to various parts of the body.
What are arterioles? Small artery that delivers blood to capillaries
Capillary Bed Exchange vessles;bld flows most slowly b/c their total cross sectional area is the largest.
Proprioceptors of nervous system monitor joint movement
barorecptors of nervous system pressure sensative receptors; found in aorta & carotid arteries.
chemoreceptors of nervous system monitor chemical composition; found in aorta & carotid arteries
120-140 Systole; V contract
70-90 Diastole; V relax
Are all the valves ever open at 1 time? No
Isometric Volume: When both valves are shut; occurs during contraction & relaxtion
Cardiac Output How much blood is pumped from LV into Aorta or RV into pulmonary trunk each minute
Cardiac Reserve Used during exercise;difference b/w pumped & what could pump-resting cardiac output & maximum cardiac output;300-400% avg ppl, 600-700% athletes
Pulmonary Edema Fluid building up in lungs;LV fails, RV pumps more, & increased pressure in lungs.
Systemic Edema RV fails, LV pumps more, & increased pressure in systemic
QRS wave Atria relaxing
P wave SA node is firing
Lubb AV valves close; after V contraction
Dubb SL valves close; after V relaxation
Foramen Ovale one way flap b/w R & L atria; becomes fossa ovalis once it closes after birth
Ductus Arteriosus Shunt b/w p. artery & aorta-bypass lungs; becomes ligamentum arteriosum
Another name for the AV valves: Tricupsid & Bicuspid (mitral)
Cardiac Muscles cells in myocardium Functional synctium, lrg. mitochondria (energy center),vary in diameter & branch extensively,Intercl. discs, gap junctions, & desmosomes (in keratin fibers, gives strength, holds it together
Functional Synctium cardiac cells behave as a single coordinated unit b/c they're electrically coupled by gap junctions.
Venules formed by merging of capillaries
Postcapillary Venules are extremely porous
Larger venules have 1 or 2 layers of _______ _______ _______ smooth muscle cells
Lumen of vein larger than artery, thinner than walls
3 layers of veins tunica interna, tunica media, & tunica externa
Describe the valves of the tunica interna of veins Catch blood; can only go up; most abundant in limbs not in ventral body
Tunica Media of Veins Almost gone-few smooth muscle and elastin fibers
Tunica externa of vein Thickest layer;longitudinal bundles of collagen fibers & elastic network; lrgst veins have longit. band of smooth muscle
2 mechanisms veins use to pump blood to the heart; Skeletal & Respiratory
Skeletal mechanism veins use to pump blood to the heart: As they contract & relax blood is milked toward the heart & it cant go backwards
Respiratory mechanism veins use to pump blood to the heart: Movement of diaphragm-pressure changes in ventral body cavity(1inhale abdom press increases squeezing veins forcing bld to heart.2 chest press decr- expands thoracic vein-speed bld to RA
vasodilation relaxation, increases bld flow to capillaries
vasoconstriction contraction, reduces bld flow to capillaries
Branch directly off aortic arch L carotid & L subclavian
Branch from brachiocephalic artery only on the right side R carotid & R subclavian
RL Bronchial Arteries R-1 L-2; sends blood to lungs, bronchi, & pleurae
celiac trunk supplies liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, esophagus (abdominal aorta)
hepatic artery celiac branch to liver (abdominal aorta)
messenterics supply sml intestins & colon (abdominal aorta)
internal iliac primary arteries of pelvis
RL brachiocephalic veins drain directly into superior vena cava
jugular veins drain into rl brachiocephalic vein (superior vena cava)
rl subclavian vein drain into brachiocephalic (superior vena cava)
Azygous System drains most of thoracic region into superior vena cava
Inferior Vena Cava widest vessel in body; drains blood below diaphragm
hepatic vein flows directly into the inferior vena cava
rl renal veins drain into kidneys (inferior vena cava)
rl iliac veins drain into lower limbs & pelvis (inferior vena cava)
rl great saphenous longest vein in body (inferior vena cava)
rl small saphenous superficial vein in leg that is frequently used for prolonged administration of IV fluids (inferior vena cava)
Created by: sgrenat



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