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Cardiovascular 10

MA Anatomy and Physiology Terms

QuestionAnswer
Aneurysm A localized dilation of a weakened area of the wall of an artery. The area balloons out with every pulsation of artery.
Atherosclerosis Fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries. Hardening of the arteries. A form of arteriosclerosis.
Bruit An abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ or gland by auscultation.
Claudication Cramplike pain in the calves caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs. Associated with atherosclerosis.
Coronary artery Pair of arteries that branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with Oxygen.
Cusp Any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart that close to prevent backflow of blood.
Dependent edema A fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the heart.
Diastole The period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase (systole).
Dysrhythmia Abnormal rhythm
Edema The localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues (interstitial) causing area to swell.
Endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
Hypertension Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg; aka arterial hypertension.
Hypotension Low blood pressure. Less than normal.
Infarction A localized area of necrosis (necrotic or dead)in a tissue, organ or a part of the body.
Mediastinum The area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus and bronchi.
Murmur A low-pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a "heart murmur" heard on auscultation.
Myocardium The middle muscular layer of the heart.
Occlusion Closure, state of being closed.
Pacemaker The SA node (sinoatrial) of the heart located in the right atrium. Initiates heartbeat, influences the rate and rhythm of the heartk beat. An artificial pacemaker can be implanted that maintains the normal rhythm by electrically stimulating contraction.
Palpitation Pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional response and sometimes with heart disorders.
Pericardium The double membranous sac that encloses the heart the including origins of the great blood vessels.
Pitting edema Swelling that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent. (usually extremities)
Pulmonary artery Pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries to carry deoxygenated blood.
Pulmonary circulation The circulation of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to left atrium. ~Heart~Lungs~Heart
Pulmonary vein 4 large veins (2 each lung) transports oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. Only oxygenated blood carrying veins.
SA node Pacemaker of the heart. Sinoatrial node located in the right atrium. Initiates the heartbeat, influences heart rate and rhythm.
Septum The wall that divides or seperates two cavities. Interatrial, atrioventricular, interventricular.
Systemic circulation The circulation of blood from left ventricle of heart throughout the body and back to right atrium.
Systole The contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Systole is marked by the first sound heard on auscultation, after the BP cuff is released.
Vasoconstriction Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel.
Vegetation An abnormal growth of tissue around a valve.
Anorexia Loss of Appetite.
Anxiety Feeling of apprehension, worry, uneasiness, or dread, especially of the future.
Bradycardia Slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 bpm.
Chest pain Feeling of discomfort in the chest area.
Cyanosis Slightly bluish, grayish, or dark discoloration of the skin due to abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin.
Dyspnea Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes painful.
Fatigue Feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotropic drug.
Fever Elevation of temperature above the normal.
Headache A diffuse pain in different portions of the head.
Nausea Unpleasant sensation, usually preceding vomiting.
Pallor Lack of color; paleness.
Sweat Perspiration. Liquid secreted by the sweat glands.
Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heart rate, usually a rate over 100 bpm.
Vomiting Ejection of gastric contents through the mouth.
Weakness Lack of physical strength or vigor.
Angina pectoris Pressure to severe, agonizing pain, caused by insufficient blood supply to the myocardium.
Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle itself, affecting the pumping ability results in enlargement of the heart.
Congestive heart failure Condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort. Edema in the lower portions of the body resulting from blood flow through the vessels being slowed.
Coronary artery disease Narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to myocardium is prevented.
Endocarditis Inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart.
Mitral valve prolapse Drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve.
Myocardial infarction Heart attack: condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries.
Myocarditis Inflammation of the myocardium.
Pericarditis Inflammation of the percardium (the membrane that covers the heart muscle)
Rheumatic fever Inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A Strep infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Arteriosclerosis Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries. aka Hardening of the arteries.
Essential hypertension No single known cause. 90% of all hypertension.
Secondary hypertension Caused by complications from a primary cause such as pregnancy or kidney disease.
Malignant hypertension Severe and rapidly progressive high blood pressure, characterized by a diastolic pressure higher than 120 mmHg, severe headaches, confusion and blurred vision.
Raynaud's phenomenon Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles (causing pallor of the fingers or toes), followed by cyanosis and then redness.
Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus.
Varicose veins Enlarged, superficial veins; a twisted, dilated vein with imcompetent valves.
Venous insufficiency Abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to trunk of body.
Atrial flutter Condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 and 350 bpm.
Atrial fibrillation Extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria. Between 120-200 bpm.
Ventricular fibrillation Condition which results in rapid, tremulous and ineffectual contractions of the ventricles. (no heartbeat, no palpable pulse, no respirations or blood circulating.
Angiography X-ray of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels using a contrast medium injected into an artery or vein.
Cardiac catheterization Diagnostic procedure in which a catheter in introduced into a lare vein or artery and threaded through the circulatory system to the heart.
Cardiac enzymes testing Blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle. Enzymes will be elevated 4-6 hrs after an attack and would peak at 18-24 hrs.
Echocardiography Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart.
Electrocardiogram Graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin; EKG or ECG.
Event monitor Records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities. Can be used for up to a month.
Exercise stress testing A means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress.
Holter monitoring Small portable device for monitoring the electical activity of the heart over a 24 hour period of time. It is used to detect dysrhythmias or evidence of ischemia.
Defibrillator Small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in chest or abdomen to monitor heart rhythm, and return the heart to it's normal rhythm.
Tallium stress test Nuclear test using exercise stress testing with thallium imaging to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise.
Created by: First Institute