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BT Geo Euro History

European and Russian historical eras and terms

serf A peasant of the Middles Ages, bound to the land, worked tough lives on farms and paid high taxes to lords.
knights Hired by lords to protect serfs, in the Middle Ages, rode on horses and followed strict honor codes.
Julius Caesar The Roman general who took over the Roman Republic, made himself a dictator, was stabbed to death in the Roman Senate.
Caesar Augustus The first emperor of the Roman Empire, ruled during a peaceful time in Rome, conquered new parts of Europe.
medieval Means "Middle Ages", the time period after the fall of Rome, no big countries - just small manors and feudalism.
Alexander the Great Man who conquered Greece in ancient times, created a huge empire by himself all the way to India, spread the ideas of Greek culture.
Athens A city-state in ancient Greece, was the birthplace of democracy.
democracy A form of government in which the people select their leaders and make decisions, was used in ancient Athens and again after the Enlightenment.
Renaissance Period in European History, means "rebirth," was a rebirth of classical art, architecture, and literature in the styles of ancient Greece and Rome, followed the Middle Ages.
Reformation Period in European history in which people began questioning the Catholic Church, broke away and formed Protestant religions.
Martin Luther Famous Protestant leader and German monk, nailed 95 Theses to the door of a church in Germany to protest Catholic abuses,
absolutism The belief that monarchs got their power to rule from God, and could do whatever they wanted because they acted in God's name, ex: Louis XIV
Louis XIV Famous absolute monarch, King of France, built palace of Versailles, spent huge amounts of the people's tax money, made France powerful but bankrupt by the end of his 72 year reign.
Enlightenment Period in European history where thinkers began questioning absolute monarchs, wanted democracy and natural rights, believed in freedoms, caused revolutions.
French Revolution An event where the French overthrew their monarchs and upper class, set up a democracy run by the middle class, established elections and natural rights (life, liberty, property), eventually Napoleon took over to bring order to the chaos.
Napoleon Bonaparte He was the Emperor of France after the French Revolution, conquered most of Europe and spread the ideas of the Revolution with him.
Constantine Emperor of Rome, converted to Christianity, made the religion legal in the Roman Empire.
Jesus The founder of Christianity, was a Jew who lived in Palestine during the Roman Empire, believed to be Son of God, executed by Romans and rose from the dead.
feudalism The political and social system of Europe in the Middle Ages, serfs worked the land and lords made money off the serfs. The Church was the center of society.
Black Death This event ended the Middle Ages, caused widespread death across the continent, stopped trade, the disease was the bubonic plague.
Christopher Columbus European explorer who "found" the Americas, started the permanent settlement of the New World, sailed the ocean in 1492 on behalf of Spain to find new trade routes to Asia.
Industrial Revolution The "Machine Age," machines invented to mass produce items for people, people moved from farms to the cities for work in factories, made life easier and goods more available.
colonization The act of European countries taking over other lands and people for the resources.
nationalism Extreme patriotism, a fierce loyalty to your own country, the belief that your country is better than all other countries and they are inferior.
World War I The global war fought mostly in Europe in trenches in the early 1900s, new technology made the war devastating, having colonies made it global, Germany lost the war and the Allies punished them.
Great Depression A period after World War I in which many lost their jobs and economic systems were on the verge of collapse, people turned to dictators to solve their problems in Europe
World War II A global conflict from 1939 to 1945, the worst manmade catastrophe in human history, Europe was in ruins after Hitler conquered most of it, the Allies smashed Germany, 75 million killed.
Adolf Hitler The dictator of Germany, leader of the Nazi Party, started WWII and killed millions of people in the Holocaust, committed suicide at the end of the war.
Leonardo da Vinci A famous Italian Renaissance artist who painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, he was also a sculptor and inventor.
Cold War Period in Europe after WWII, a war of ideas and very little bloodshed, fought between the democratic US and the communist USSR, the US won.
Peter the Great Russian Czar who wanted to westernize Russia, built St. Petersburg, was really tall!
czar Russian emperor, means "caesar," believed they were absolute monarchs, Nicholas II was last czar.
Nicholas II Last czar of Russia, overthrown because of loss in WWI, communists executed him and his family.
Vladimir Lenin Leader of the Russian Revolution which brought communism to Russia in 1917, created the Soviet Union (USSR), body is still on display embalmed in Moscow.
Joseph Stalin Soviet dictator who murdered millions of his own people, industrialized the USSR quickly, fought Hitler in WWII, faced off against the US in the early years of the Cold War.
Mikhail Gorbachev Last leader of the USSR, introduced democratic reforms that caused the USSR to implode and disintegrate, helped cause the end of the Cold War.
European Union The economic alliance of 27 European countries today, they use the Euro together and trade freely, has brought peace to the continent.
atomic bomb This new weapon first used by the US on Japan to end WWII made the Cold War that much more terrifying, using it would have caused WWIII and possibly killed everyone.
Germany This country was divided into democratic west and communist east after WWII, and its capital city of Berlin was also divided.
westernization The process of trying to make Russia more like Western Europe, started by Peter the Great, adopted Western European cultures and ideas.
Created by: midorsey