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Ch. 7 neuro

Mrs. Bailey's class

the primary motor area in the _____ lobe is invloved in the initiation of voluntary movements. Frontal
What are ganglia? collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS (Control Nervous System)
specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS (peripheral nervous system schwann cells
fiber types in the dorsal root afferent(sensory)
the right cerebral hemisphere recieves sensory input from the _____ side of the body? left
Nervous system subdivision that is composed of cranial, spinal nerves and ganglia. peripheral nervous system
what would hapen if the ventral root of a spinal nerve were damaged or transected(sliced in two) loss of sensory function
generally conducts impulses away from the cell body axon
sensory receptors found in muscle and tendons that detect their degree of stretch proprioceptors
a(n) ______ EEG is evidence of clinical death flat
What would happen if the anterior ramus of a spinal nerve were damaged or transected (sliced in half) loss of both motor and sensory function
Muscle sensations when rowing a boat golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle
another name for a bundle of nerve fibers ganglia
able to divide; therefore are responsible for most brain neoplasms neuroglia
conducts electrcal currents toward the cell body dendrite
fiber type(s) in the ventral root efferent (motor)
the cavities found in the brain are called? ventricles
nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and the spinal cord central nervous system
other than the cerebrum, the other major subdivisions of the brain are the ______ and the ______ brain stem and the cerebellem
nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers are called? spinal or mixed
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons.` efferent neuron
what is the procedure where the meninges (which cover the spinal cord) extend more inferiorly to form a sac from which cererospinal fluid can be withdrawn without damage to the spinbal cord? spinal tap
what cranial nerve(s) are involved in smiling? six (VII)
what autoimmune disorder with extensive demyelination? multiple sclerosis
damage to the _____ impairs conciousness and the awake/sleep cycles. reticular activating system
progressive degeneration of the brain with abnormal protien deposits alzheimer's disease
what releases nearotransmitters? axonal terminal
process where ATP is used to move sodium out and pottasium iona in- restores resting conditions of the neuron sodium pottasium pump
what are activated when leaning on a shovel? pacinian corpuscle (deep pressure receptor)
chief positive intracellular oin in a resting neuron pottasium ions
what part of the brain controls the drives(anger, emotion) and the regulation of water balance and body temperature hypothalamus
nerves carrying just sensory fibers are reffered to as sensory or _____ nerves afferent
list IN ORDER elements in a reflex arc (from stimulus through effector organ) stimulus, sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, effector organ
what is the refractory period? period of repolariization of the neuron during which cannot respond to second stimulus
sensory reseptors found in the skin which are specialized to detect temperature, pressure changes and pain cutaneus sense organs
neuron that conducts impulses awayfrom the CNS to muscles and glands efferent neuron
what are activated when walking on hot pavement? bare nerve endings and pacinian corpuscle (deep pressure receptor)
somatic or autonomic? regulation of blood pressure autonomic
what are ganglion? collection of nerve cell bodies found outside CNS
somatic or autonomic? flexor reflex somatic
a specialized motor speech are located at the base of the precentral gyrus is called _____ area? broca area
a ministroke; fleeting symptoms of a CVA transient ischemic attack (TIA)
what are activated by feeling a caress? meissner corpuscle (touch receptor)
junction or point of close contact between neurons synapse
fiber type(s) in a spinal nerve afferent(sensory) and efferent (motor)
somatic or autonomic? pupillary light reflex
what does the cerebellum do? responsible for regulation of posture and coordination of skeletal muscle movements. Major subdiviions of brain
what are amitotic? neurons or neuroglia? neurons
results when a brain region is deprived of blood or exposed to prolonged ischemia cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
what inscreases the speed of impulse transmission? myelin sheath
after head surgery, retension of water by brain cerebral edema
what is cerebrovascular accident (CVA)? may cause medulla oblongata to be wedged into foramen magnum by pressure of blood
neuron type(s) in a dorsal root ganglion afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor)
what would happen if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve were damages or transected (sliced in two) loss of motor function (efferent)
subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles somatic nervous system
somatic or autonomic? Patellar (knee-jerk) reflex somatic
what does the thalamus do? important relay station for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex for interpretation, encloses third ventricle, and if damaged, impairs conciousness and awake/ sleep cycles
beta waves are recorded when an individual is awake and _____ active
what is a tract? bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS
what is stimuli changes occuring within or outside the body, that affect nervous system functioning
what cranial nerve(s) are involved in slowing the heart or oncreases the mobility of the digestive tract? 10th (vagus nerve)
outermost covering of the brain, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue dura mater
innermost covering of the brain; delicate and vascular pia mater
what cranial nerve(s) are involved in raising the eyelids? cranial nerve three
what cranial nerve(s) is involved in smelling a flower? cranial nerve 1 (olfactory nerve)
what cranial nerve is involved in shrugging the shoulders? 11
structures that return cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses arachnoid villi
middle meningeal layer; like a cobweb in structure arachnoid membrane
its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull dura mater
what are the pons? they contain reflex centers involved in regulating respiratory rhythm in conjunction with lower brain- stem centers
what causes a slight and transient brain injury? concussion
neuron type(s) found in the ventral horn? efferent (motor)
the tail-like collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord is called the? cuada equina
what is an afferent neuron? neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery
what are neurotransmitters? chemical released by neurons that stimulate other neurons, muscles, or glads
what cranial nerve(s) are involved in chewing food? the trigemenial nerve (V)
the largest part of the brain is the (paired) _____? cerebrum
somatic or autonomic? salivary reflex autonomic
location of the nucleus (in the neuron) cell body
neurons or neuroglia? releases neurotransmitters neurons
what occurs in repolarization? period during which potasium ions diffuse out of the membrane
neuron type(s) found in the dorsal horn afferent (sensory)
what occurs in depolarization? state in which resting potential is reversed as sodium ions rush into the neuron
what does polarized mean? it's the electrical condition of the plasma membrane of a resting neuron
the ventricles contain the _____? cerebrospinal fluid
of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves that arise from the spinal cord, how many pairs are in SACRAL nerves? 5
of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves which arise from the spinal cord, how any pairs are in LUMBAR nerves? 12
subdivision of the PNS tat regulates the activity of the hear and smooth muscle, and of the glands; it is also called the involuntary nervous system autonomic nervous system
the primary sensory area of the cerebral hemispere is found in the _____ gyrus postcentral
what are the 3 major functions of the nervous system? 1- uses millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes inside and outside the body 2- processes and interprets sensory input to make decisions about what should be done at each moment 3- activates muscles or glands as response
neurons or neuroglia? support, insulate and protect cells neuroglia
total non-responsiveness to stimulation coma
somatic or autonomic effector are smooth muscle glands autonomic
demonstrates irritability and conductivity and thus transmit electrical messages from one area of the body to another area neurons
the _____ is an elevated ridge of cerebral cortex tissue gyri
the convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase the ______ surface area
the lentiform nucleus, the cuadate, and other nuclei are collectively called the _____ basal ganglia
what does the medulla oblongata do? contains autonomic centers, which regulate blood pressure and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing and sneezing centers
the spinal cord extends from the _____ of the skull to the ____ region of the vertebral column base, sacral
white matter is composed of? myelinated fibers
cortical area involved in audition (hearing) are found in the ____ lobe? temporal
somatic or autonomic? effectors are the skeletal muscles somatic
what is a contusion? traumatic injury that destroys brain tissue
what are the nodes of ranvier? gaps in the myelin sheath
of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves which arise from the spinal cord, how many pairs are CERVICAL nerves? 8
a major subdivision of the nervous system that interprets oncoming information and issue orders Central Nervous System (CNS)
how many pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord? 31
gray matter is composed of? cell bodies
a major subdivision of the nervous system that serves as communication lines, LINKING al parts of the body to the CNS Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
Created by: aleena_west



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