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Phlebotomy 2011

Phlebotomy Study Cards to prepare for Certification

Having great skill or experience in a particular field means? Professional
What does a Phlebotomist do in the health care field? Obtain blood, perform POCT and EKGs
What are some of the cross training taking place in the Laboratory? Health care professionals that are performing EKGs and Venipuncture
To cut into a vein to with draw a blood specimen is known as? Phlebotomy
Speaking in a pleasant voice, making good eye contact and always being patient are considered good what? Communication skills
Who is the "father of modern medicine"? Hippocrates
A person who cut hair, gave an enema, let blood and pulled teeth was known as what? Barber surgeons
What does OSHA stand for? Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Setting standards for a safe and healthy workplace is who's job? OSHA
Washing between patients and wearing gloves is the best way to avoid what? Infection
If an infection is airborne what does that mean? That it is spread through droplets
What is an infectious organism capable of doing? Spreading disease
A person who lacks an effective resistance to disease is considered to be what? A susceptible host
How does infection enter or exit a susceptible host? Through the respiratory tract, blood or ingestion
Infection causes the release of what? White Blood Cells(WBC)
When is it acceptable to put food in a specimen refrigerator? Never
What is needed to clean up a blood spill? Bio-hazzard bag, gloves, paper toweling and 1:10 dilution of bleach
What are the diseases that the Universal Precautions are trying to prevent? Hepatitis and AIDS
What is the # 1 cause of exposure to disease? Needle-stick injuries
Why do we wash/clean before and after patient contact? So we don't carry germs from one patient to another
What does CDC stand for? Centers for Disease Control
What do we use to clean a normal blood draw site? 70% Isopropanol(Isopropyl alchohol)
HIV and Hepatitis infections can easily be spread from what? A needle-stick
How can health care staff prevent needle-sticks? Use only safety needle devices
What is PPE? Personal Protection Equipment
Wearing safety googles, gown and gloves, take a piece of gauze, wrap it around the cap of blood tube, slowly remove the port cap is the proper way of doing what? Opening a blood tube to aliquot a sample
Where should Lab Coats be worn? In work areas
What department handles Cultures & Sensitivity? Microbiology
What department handles PTT? Coagulation
What department handles H&H's? Hematology
What department handles Type and Cross-matches? Blood Bank
What department restores physical capabilities? Physical Therapy
Where would you find a patient having radioactive isotopes injected? Nuclear Medicine
A Sodium Citrate tube is drawn for an APTT for Coagulation, when should it be tested? Within 4 hours
Biopsy tissue, autopsy specimen and cytology specimens all get sent to what department? Pathology
What types of patients do Internal Medicine deal with? General care patients
Venipuncture means? To draw blood from a vein
Blood drawn in a RED Top tube will yield what? Serum
Name the 3 main veins used for venipuncture? Median Cubital(antecubital fossa), cephalic and basilic
Which vein is the most commonly used? Median Cubital(Antecubital fossa)
Depth, bounce and size are all considerations of what? Deciding which vein to use for venipuncture
Where are veins located? In skeletal collagen tissue and muscle tissue
Blood vessels have valves otherwise known as? Veins
What special considerations must be taken into account when deciding what vein to use? Whether it looks red & bruised, does it move, does it have a pulse and is it too hard & cord-like to puncture
What gauge needle is most commonly used for venipuncture? 21-23 gauge
A tube which contains a vacuum, which essentially sucks the blood from the vein through a needle is known as what? An evacuated system
Blood pulled through a syringe is known as what system? Non-evacuated system
When would you use the Non-evacuated system? When there are tiny or weak veins that may collapse otherwise
When would you find it helpful to use a butterfly needle? For pediatric patients
When blood is drawn from an IV line/site, how much blood should be discarded? 2-5ml
If an IV site must be used for a collection site, where would you draw with regard to the site? Distal to the IV
The single most important step to performing venipuncture is? Proper patient identification
What can you do to put the patient at ease? Have empathy for that patient
What might happen if a patient is upset or frightened? Sympathetic blood flow could occur & the WBC and glucose will elevate
What is the correct procedure for washing your hands? Hold hands in a downward position, scrubbing between your fingers and using a paper towel to dry your hands and turn on or shut off the water
Why do we use a tourniquet? To give the vein time to fill as it dams the blood between the site and the tourniquet
Why should a tourniquet be removed within 1-2 minutes? To avoid the blood from becoming hemoconcentrated
How should you clean a venipuncture site? In a concentric circle motion
What is the most common bacteria that lives on the skin? Staphyloccos
What is the proper way to hold the vein for a venipuncture? The thumb of the hand holding the arm should contact the vein just below the entry point
Why is it not recommended that that you make a window when holding the vein for a venipuncture? Because you put yourself at greater risk of a needle-stick injury
Which glucose tolerance test is used to diagnose diabetes mellitus? 2 hour Post Prandial Blood Sugar
What test could evaluate a liver function? Bilirubin
Which tube used for testing has No Additive? RED Top
What additive is found in a Green Top tube? Heparin
Which tube allows for the blood to stay at it's sugar level? Gray
Gray top tubes are used for which tests? Glucose Tolerance Testing and Blood Alcohol Testing
When using a butterfly needle, why do you draw a "waste" tube before drawing a coagulation sample? Because the tubing attached to the butterfly needle contains air, and you want to get that air out of the line
Which tube is used as a "waste" tube or "clearing" tube? Plain Tube
What rule should be followed when drawing a SST tube? It should be drawn after the Red Top tube
The Lavender Top tube serves what purpose? To prevent the sample from clotting
What is the EDTA tube? Lavender Top
How many times do you invert a non-additive tube? None. It is not a tube which needs to be inverted
Why do you disengage the tube from the back of the needle before withdrawing the needle from the arm? Because the vacuum from the tube can cause a bruise
How long should the alcohol dry before performing the venipuncture? 30 seconds
What can cause skin irritation and hemolysis? Alcohol
What causes a hematoma? Puncturing the wall of a vein
What is the slanting surface at the end of a needle called? Bevel
What does lumen mean? It is the space within the walls of an artery, vein or tube
What does it mean when a vein is patent? It means it is in a state of elasticity, free, open and a good vein to use
If you need to draw 3ml of blood using a syringe, where would the bottom of the plunger be located? At the 3cc mark
What tests cannot be performed if the blood is hemolyzed? CBC, K+ and BIL
What reason would the blood not flow into the tube after puncturing a site? The tube has too much vacuum or the needle went through the vein
You draw a green top tube, let the specimen sit for one hour, it separates, what is the pale yellow fluid at the top called? Plasma
Which of the following are considered to be extracellular fluid? Serum, Blood, Interstitial fluid or All of them? Interstitial fluid
How do you consider the normal range for capillary blood? Through Arterial values and Venous values
What test(s) can be done from a skin(dermal) puncture? Prothrombin
When collecting blood for a skin puncture which specimen should be collected first? Either WBC or Platelets
Why is it necessary to wipe the finger between collection tubes? To prevent micro-clots
Where should the finger be punctured? Off to the sides, not in the middle or on the tip
Why would you warm the hand or foot? To encourage blood flow
Why wouldn't you use cotton balls to clean a puncture site? Because cotton balls leave lint and fibers at the site
If you made a blood smear from a blood tube, how long can you allow the tube to sit? 2-6 hours
You use a blood tube for a blood smear, you let it sit for longer than 6 hours, what happens to that sample? It losses it's value
What should the edge of a blood smear look like? A Feather or a Rainbow
Why shouldn't you squeeze or "milk" the skin puncture site? It can cause hemolysis
What is the function of white blood cells? To fight infection
How do platelets help coagulation? They form thromboplastin
When RBC lyse, what analytes are affected the most? Bilirubin, Glucose, Sodium, Potassium or All of Them? Potassium
Why does Hemoglobin have the color it does? Because of the oxygen content
Which WBC forms antibodies to foreign particles? Monocytes, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils or All of them? Lymphocytes
What are Neutrophils and what do they do? They are WBC that serve to engulf and digest foreign particles in the body
When there is an allergic reaction; which WBC will be seen in increased numbers? Eosinophils
What do ammonia levels and ABGs have in common? They both need to be collected and put on ice
What is an autologous donation? The person giving and receiving
The protein which induces the production of antibodies is called what? An antigen
What happens if the body is attacked by a foreign body? There is an increase in WBC
Why are "bleeding" times performed? To see how long it takes for blood to clot or how long it takes for the site to stop bleeding
When doing a "bleeding" time, the blood pressure cuff should be pumped to what? 40mmHg
What age is it mandatory to perform a PKU? 7-14 days
What could happen to an infant if a PKU is not detected? Could miss the proper diagnosis of retardation
What is TDM? Therapeutic Drug Monitor
Before doing an ABG; what test must be done first to determine the patient's circulation? Allen Test
What do triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol have in common? All must be done Fasting or at Basal state
Why are Lab tests needed? To diagnose and treat a patient
If a glucose test is collected in an SST tube, it should be separated within what timeframe? 1 hour
Regarding the separation of a blood sample in an SST tube, what does separation mean? To separate the serum from the clot
What, if anything, should be included on the label of a blood specimen tube? Patient's name, date and time of day, ID number and tech's name/initials
When drawing a patient in the feet or legs, what complication can occur? It could cause Thrombophlebitis
What is the standard recommended way to hold the arm when doing a venipuncture? Hold the arm straight and anchor the vein
Why do you use a Navy(Dark Blue) tube for determining the level of metals? Because it is free of trace metals
True or False: When you perform a syringe draw, you should fill the anticoagulant tube last. False
An IV patient has a glucose result of 450mg/dl and is not a diabetic. Why do you think this happened? Maybe the patient is in fact a diabetic, but was never diagnosed as such
True or False: A specimen is hemolyzed when the serum of the blood sample is cherry red. True
Tue or False: Reticulocyte count evaluates the RBC in bone marrow. True
What is PT & PTT used to evaluate? Clotting time
True or False: The serum of a blood specimen will be milky or cloudy if the patient is diabetic. False
Why would the serum of a blood specimen be cloudy or milky? Because the patient has bad eating habits
If a patient had a mastectomy on the right side, would you draw blood from the right side or left side? Left side
Why would a vein roll when you try to puncture it? You did not anchor the vein properly
True or False: Aging skin bruises very easy, veins are buried in the skin and you should never use tape on aged skin. True
True or False: If a patient is having a seizure while you are drawing blood, you must keep drawing the blood until you are done. False
True or False: If you probe around in a patients arm you can cause nerve damage. True
Why would you not draw from a burn area? The skin has been damaged and you can't feel anything
What type of communication skills would you use for children when drawing their blood? Speak in a soft voice and be gentle with them
True or False: You can do a venipuncture on a 2 day old infant. True
You should never do dermal puncture on a child in the foot after 6 months. Why? Because you can hurt the bone in the foot
Why should you never puncture the curvature of the heel? Because it could cause damage to the calcaneous bone
What is the study of blood and blood-forming tissues called? Hematology
For what is AFB a test? Tuberculosis
What type of consent is inferred by signs, inaction or silence? Implied consent
If one is neglectful or fails to perform an obligation they are guilty of which of the following: breach of duty, damages, libel, slander or precedent? Breach of Duty
The latin phrase that means "Let the master answer" is which of the following: guardian ad litem, subpoena duces tecum proximate cause or respondeat superior? Respondeat Superior
What is the legal term for the threat of bodily harm? Assault
Unauthorized publication of information about a patient is which of the following: tort, slander, libel, invasion of privacy or defamation of character? Invasion of Privacy
If you touched a patient without consent you could be guilty of what? Battery
What type of consent is given when a patient understands the risks and benefits of the procedure? Informed consent
If a phlebotomist does not use proper measures to prevent a fainting patient from falling of what is s/he guilty? Negligience
Define Asepsis. Germ free
A term for killing organisms after they leave the body. Medical asepsis
What is a form of isolation in which anyone entering the patient's room and having direct contact with the patient wears gloves and gowns? Contact isolation
What is the form of isolation used for patients who have diseases tht can be spread by droplet infection? Respiratory isolation
Which Federal Agency established in 1946, and headquartered in Atlanta, GA functions to prevent and control disease? CDC
Which non-governmental agency, headquartered in Chicago, IL, establishes guidelines for hospitals and health care agencies to follow regrding quality of care? JACHO
What are the Federal guidelines that regulate all clinical labs; regulate specfic guidlines for QA, QC, record keeping and personnel qualifications and regulations apply to any site that test human specimens? CLIA
What year was the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments enacted? 1988
Enacted in 1996 by the U.S. Congress that protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. HIPAA
An institute formerly known as NCCLS - develops guidelines and sets standards of performance for all areas of the clinical laboratory,what is it? CLSI
An agency that outlines competencies for phlebotomy programs approved by their organizaitons, also approves phlebotomy programs, is known as? NAACLS
What is a physician's order to obtain a specimen for testing? Requisition
As blood circulates, which components does it carry to and from the lungs? Oxygen and carbon dioxide
In a hospital setting when should a phlebotomist never draw blood? When a patient is not wearing an ID band
What is the destruction of red blood cells called? Hemolysis
What is an accumulation of fluid under the skin called? Edema
What is a sterile disposable, sharp instrument used in dermal punctures called? Lancet
A condition in which plasma enters the tissues resulting in a higher than normal concentration of the cellular components of blood is called? Hemoconcentration
A collection of blood underneath the skin is called? Hematoma
Which of the following is NOT a part of the venipuncture needle: bevel, shaft, lumen, barrel, hub? Barrel
What tube is used for CBC draw and contains EDTA? Lavender Top
Which tube must have a 9:1 ration and is used for the collection of coagulation studies? Light Blue Top
What does the gray top tube contain? Sodium Fluoride/Potassium Oxalate Sodium Fluoride/Na2EDTA
Which tube contains Acid Citrate Dextrose-A (ACD-A) Acid Citrate Dextrose-B (ACD-B) Sodium Polyanetholesulfonate (SPS)? Yellow Top
What can happen if a tourniquette is left on too long? Hemoconcentration
What condition could happen if you draw blood from a mastectomy patient? Lymphostasis
What size lancet can permanently damage an infant? 2.8mm
Which additive also inhibits glycolysis? Sodium fluoride
Capillary specimens will have a higher amount of what component? Glucose
If a dermal puncture penetrates the bone, what could the incision cause? Osteomyelitis
Why is the first drop of blood that appears after a dermal puncture not collected for testing? It contains interstitial fluid
On an adult, other than fingers or heals, where can a dermal puncture be done? Ear lobe
In 1993 the FDA approved the use of which topical anesthetic? EMLA
A test required to be performed on infants, is called? PKU
If you draw a patient's blood without consent you can be charged with what? Assault & Battery
How long should pressure be applied to a venipuncture site to stop bleeding? 5 minutes
What is iron containing protein in red blood cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide? Hemoglobin
What is a Thrombocyte? Platelets
What is the liquid portion of blood after it has clotted and fibrinogen is gone? Serum
What valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle? Tricuspid
What valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle? Mitral
The issuance by an official body of a certificate to a person indicating certain requirements to practice have been met is called what? Certification
What do you call the ability to safeguard patient privacy, particularly information in the patient record? Confidentiality
What agency developed the Patient's Bill of Rights? American Hospital Association(AHA)
Which blood component quickly accumulates around the dermal puncture site? Platelets
Also known as the pacemaker of the heart? SA Node
Which color tube contains sodium citrate? Light Blue Top
The additive in a green-top collection tube is? Lithium heparin/Sodium heparin
Hormones are produced in which of the following body systems? Endocrine
This complication results from repeated venipuncture of the same vein: Phlebitis
Created by: BellaRu28
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