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Chapter - 5

Vocabulary & Terminology

absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine and into the blood stream.
achlorhydria Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.
amino acids The chief consituents of proteins there are 20 amino acids that contribute to protein synthesis. Amino acids are formed when large protein molecules are digested.
amylase An enzyme that digests (breaks down) starched into simpler substances (such as sugars).
anastomosis A surgical procedure that creates a new opening between two previously unconnected tubular organs or parts of the same organ.
anus The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
appendectomy Removal or excision of the appendix
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
appendix Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen
bile Yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats
biliary Pertaining to bile or bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum)
bilirubin A yellow-orange pigment found in bile
bowel Intestine. The large bowell is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine
buccal mucosa Muccous membrane lining the cheeck
canine teeth Four, pointed dog-like (canine means dog) teeth. Each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw.
cecal Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon)
cecum First part of the large intestine (colon)
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen
cheilitis Inflammation of the lip
cholecystectomy Excision or removal of the gallbladder
choledochojejunostomy Surgical anastomosis (create a new opening)between the common bile duct and the jejunum
choledocholithiasis Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct
choledochotomy Incision of the common bile duct
cholelithiasis Abnormal condition of gallstones
cirrhosis Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver
colon Large intestine (bowel)
colonic Pertaining to the colon
colonic polyposis Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining th colon
colonoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the colon
colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both
colostomy New opening of the colon through the adominal wall to the outside of the body
common bile duct Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine
constipation Difficulty in passing (eliminating) fecus (stool)
Crohn disease Inflammation bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness and weight loss
defecation Eliminatiing waste and undigested foods through the rectum
deglutition Swallowing
dental caries Tooth decay
dentibuccal Pertaing to cheeck and teeth
dentin The cheif substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown
diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools
digestion The process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine
diverticula Small, pouch-le herniations through the muscular wall of a tublar organ such as the colon
diverticulitis Inflammation of the diveticula; adominal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms
diverticulosis Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation
duodenal Pertaining to the duodenum
duodenum The first part of the small intestine
dysentery Painful intestines; marked by inflammaiton and infection, especially of the colon with abdominal pain and diarrhea
dysphagia Difficulty swalling
elimination Discharge from the body indigestible materials or wastes
emulsification Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles
enamel White, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of the tooth
endodontist A dental specialist in the inner parts fo the tooth
enterocolitis Inflammation of the small intestine and colon
enterocolostomy New surgical connection between the small intestine and colon
enzyme Proteins that speed up the rate of the biochemical reaction. The suffix -ase means enzyme
eructation Gas expelled grom the stomach through the mouth
esophageal Pertaing to the esophagus
esophageal varices Swallon, twisted veings at the lower end of the esophagus
esophagus Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach
etiology Study of the cause of disease
facial Pertaing to the face
fatty acids Substances that are produce when fats are digested. They combine with glycerol to form fat
feces Solid wastes; stools
gallbladder Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored
gastric carcinoma Malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Backflow of solds and fluid from the stomach of the mouth against its normal direction of movement
gastrointestinal tract The tubular system related the stomach and intestines beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus
gastrojejunostomy New surgical opening between the stomach and jejunum; an anastomosis. The procedure is part of a gastric bypass surgery
gastrostomy New opening of the stomach through the adominal wall to the outside of the body
gingivitis Inflammation of the gums
gluconeogenesis Processing of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the lvier
glucose Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells
glycogen Storage from of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when ist is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells
glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar
hematochezia Passage of bright red blood from the rectum
hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted varicose veings in the rectal region
hepatoma Tumor (malignant) of the liver cells; hepatocellular carinoma
hepatomegaly Englargement of the leiver
herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. Painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infoection and known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia Protrusion of the upper protion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm
hydrochloric acid Strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion
hyperbilirubinemia High levels billirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice
hyperglycemia High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus
hypoglossal Pertaing to below the tongue
icterus Jaundice; yellow-orante coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of billirubin in the blood
idiopathic Pertaing to unknown cause of disease
ileitis Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine)
ileocecal sphincter Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine)
ileostomy Surgical formation of an artifical opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall
ileum Third (and final) portion of the small intestine
ileus Failure of peristalsis with obstruciton of the intestines
incisor One of four front teeth on eithr jaw
inflammatory bowel disease Severe inflammtion of the samll and large intestine (colon); examples Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
inguinal hernia A small loop of the bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle
insulin Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilities transport of sugar from the blood into the body cells
intussusception One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines
irritable bowel syndrome Group of gastroentestinal symptoms (adominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) associated with stress and tension
jaundice A symptom of illnes marked by yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from excess billirubin in the blood
jejunum Second part of the small intestine
labial Pertaining to the lip
laparoscopy Laparoscopy visual (endoscopic)exmination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small adominal incisions
lipase Enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum
lithogenesis Formation of stone (calculi)
liver Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ)of the adomen. It secretes bile, forms proteins and metabolizes fats, proteings, and sugar
lower esophageal sphincter Ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
mastication Process of chewing
melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing blood
mesentery Membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall
molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eigth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
nausea Unpleasant senstation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit
odynophagia Painful swalling
oral Pertaining to the mouth
oral leukoplakia White plaques or pathches on the mucus membrane of the mouth
orthodontist Dentist specializing in straightening teeth
palate Roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posteriour fleshy part near the throat
palatoplasty Surgical repair of the palate
pancreas Gland under and behind the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
papillae Small elevationson the surface of the tongue containing taste buds
parenteral Petaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection
parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheeck, just anterior to the ear
peptic ulcer Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum
periodontal disease Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
periodontist Denttist specializing in treating the gums
peristalsis Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures
peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
pharyngeal Pertaining to the pharynx or throat
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
postprandial Pertaining to after meas
premolar teeth Either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behine the canine teeth and in front of the molars
proctologist Specialist in the study of the anus and rectum
protease Enzymes that digest proteins
pulp Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum
pyloroplasty Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter
pylorus Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum
rectocele Hernia of the wall of the rectum
rugae Folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth
saliva Enzyme-containing digestive juice secreated by salivary glands
salivary glands Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, submandibular glands
sialadenitis Inflammation of a salivary gland
sialolith Salivary gland stone; lodged in a salivary gland or duct
sigmoid colon Distal, lower end of the colon
sigmoidoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon
steatorrhea Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion malabsorption of fat
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth
sublingual Pertaining to below the tongue
submandibular Pertaining to below the lower jaw (mandible)
triglycerides Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of gylcerol
ulcerative colitis Inflammation of the colon and rectum with presence of ulcers; an inflammatory bowel disease
uvula Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.
uvulectomy Removal (excision) of the uvula
viral hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
volvulus Twisted of the intestine upon itself
Created by: missb