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Chemistry Comes Alive

anything that occupies space and has mass matter
equal to actual amount of matter in an object, which remains constant wherever object is mass
varies with gravity weight
studies nature of matter, especially how its building blocks are put together and interact science of chemistry
substance that does not flow perceptibly under moderate stress, has definite capacity for resisting forces (as compression or tension) which tend to deform it, and under ordinary conditions retains definite size and shape solid
fluid that has no independent shape but has definite volume; does not expand indefinitely and that is only slightly compressible liquid
fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume but tends to expand indefinitely gas
matter __ in liquid, solid, or gaseous states exists
compared with matter, energy is __ __ less tangible
capacity to do work; may be stored, potential, or in action, kinetic energy
energy has no mass, does not take up space, and can be measured only by its effects on matter
greater the work done, more energy is __ doing it used
energy of motion or movement, e.g., constant movement of atoms, or push given to swinging door that sets it into motion kinetic energy
kinetic energy does work by __ objects, which in turn can do work by moving or pushing on other objects moving
stored or inactive; capability to do work but is not presently doing so potential energy
when potential energy is released, it becomes kinetic and so is capable of __ __ doing work
energy is a topic of __ physics
matter is the substance, and energy is the __ of the substance mover
all living things are composed of __ and they all require __ to grow and function matter; energy
release and use of energy by living systems gives us the elusive quality of __ life
energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances chemical energy
when __ __ occur that rearrange atoms of chemicals in certain way, potential energy is unleashed and becomes kinetic, or energy in action chemical reactions
phosphorylated nucleotide; supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
some food energy is __ __ in bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) temporarily captured
ATP bonds broken and store energy is released as needed to do __ __ cellular work
most useful form of energy in the living systems because it is used to run almost all functional processes chemical energy in form of ATP
results from movement of charged particles electrical energy
atom, or group of atoms, that carries positive or negative electric charge as result of having lost, or gained, one or more electrons ions
electrical currents are generated in body, when ions move __ or __ cell membranes along; across
electrical currents of nervous system; used to transmit message from one part of body to another nerve impulses
directly involved in moving matter mechanical energy
energy that travels in waves, which vary in length radiant or electromagnetic
entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the longest radio waves and including visible light electromagnetic spectrum
stimulates retinas of eyes, is important in vision light energy
cause sunburn, but also stimulate body to make vitamin D ultraviolet waves
energy conversions are quite __ efficient
in energy conversions, some of initial energy supply is always unusable, "lost" to environment as heat
all energy __ in body liberate heat conversions
heat liberated in energy conversions helps to maintain human's relatively high __ __, which influences body functioning body temperature
higher the body temp., the __ body's chemical reactions occur faster
one of a limited number of unique varieties of matter that composes substances of all kinds; all matter is composed of these elements
elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances by __ __ methods ordinary chemical
92 of the current 112 elements occur in nature
20 of the current 112 elements are __ __ in particle accelerator devices made artificially
make up about 96% of body weight carbon, oxygen. hydrogen, nitrogen
arrangement of chemical elements based on the periodic law periodic table
each element is composed of more or less __ __, or building blocks identical particles
smallest particle of an elemental substance that exhibits the properties of that element; composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. atoms
every element's atoms __ from those of all other elements differ
every element's atoms give it its __ physical and chemical properties unique
properties we can detect with our sense, or measure physical
properties pertain to bonding behavior and account for the facts that iron rusts, animals can digest their food, and so on chemical
way atoms interact with other atoms bonding behavior
one or two letter symbol used to indicate an element; usually the first letter(s) of the element's name atomic symbol
in a few cases the atomic symbol is taken from __ __ for element Latin name
sodium is indicated by atomic symbol Na, from Latin word natrium
word atom comes from Greek word meaning indivisible
atoms are clusters of __ __ particles, called protons, neutrons, and electrons even smaller
even though atom means indivisible in Greek, their __ __ can be divided with high-technology tools subatomic particles
old idea of atom indivisibility is useful because atom loses __ __ of its element when it is split into its subatomic particles unique properties
atom's __ particles differ in mass, electrical charge, and position in the atom subatomic
contains protons and neutrons tightly bound together, in an atom central nucleus
central nucleus of an atom is surrounded by __ __ orbiting electrons
subatomic particle that bears a positive charge; located in the atomic nucleus protons
uncharged subatomic particle; found in the atomic nucleus neutrons
because an atom's nucleus contains protons and neutrons, it is __ charged overall positively
heavy particles and have approx. same mass, designated as 1 atomic mass unit protons and neutrons
unit of mass, used to express masses of atoms atomic mass unit
because all of heavy subatomic particles are concentrated in nucleus, nucleus is __ dense
nucleus accounts for nearly __ __ of atom entire mass
negatively charged subatomic particle; orbits the atom's nucleus electrons
electron bears negative charge equal in strength to positive charge of the proton
only about 1/2000 mass of proton, and usually designated as 0 amu mass of electron
all atoms are electrically neutral because number of protons is __ __ by its number of electrons precisely balanced
in an atom, positive and negative charges cancel the effect of each other electrically neutral
for any atom, the number of protons and electrons is always __ equal
simplified and outdated model of atomic structure; depicts electrons moving around nucleus in fixed, generally circular orbits planetary model
exact location of electrons can never be determined at particular times because they jump around following __ __ unknown trajectories
regions around nucleus in which given electron or electron pair is likely to be found most of the time orbitals
chemists talk about __ instead of __ orbitals; orbits
more modern model of atomic structure; more useful in predicting chemical behavior of atoms orbital model
orbital model depicts __ regions of greatest electron density by denser shading probably
denser shading or haze; depicting greatest electron density in orbital model electron cloud
simplest atom with one proton and one electron hydrogen
most of the volume of an atom is __ __ empty space
nearly all of an atom's mass is concentrated in __ __ central nucleus
all __ are alike, regardless of atom considered protons
composition of different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons determines unique property of different elements
we need to know the atomic number, mass number, and atomic weight in order to identify a particular element
number of protons in an atom's nucleus; written as subscript to left of its atomic symbol atomic number
atomic number indirectly tells us the number of __ in the atom, because protons are always equal to this electrons
electrons determine the __ behavior of atoms chemical
sum of number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; indicated by superscript to left of atomic symbol; allows deduction of total number and kinds of subatomic particles in any atom mass number
mass of electrons is so small that it is __ ignored
protons and neutrons have a mass of 1 amu
mass number minus atomic number will identify the number of __ in an atom neutrons
different atomic forms of same element, vary only in number of neutrons they contain; heavier species tend to be radioactive isotopes
nearly all known elements have two or more __ __, called isotopes structural variations
isotopes have same number of protons, and electrons, but __ in number of neutrons they contain differ
most abundant isotope; has mass number of 1 ¹H
unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms, molecules, or nuclear particles equal to 1/12 of the atomic mass of the most abundant carbon isotope ¹²C atomic mass unit
Carbon has __ isotopes several
each of these carbon isotopes have 6 protons, otherwise it would not be carbon 12(superscript)C, 13(superscript)C, and 14(superscript)C
has 6 neutrons 12(superscript)C
has 7 neutrons 13(superscript)C
has 8 neutrons 14(superscript)C
isotopes can also be written with mass number __ the symbol following
average of relative weights, mass number, off all the isotopes of an element; takes into account relative abundance in nature atomic weight
as a rule, atomic weight of element is approximately equal to mass number of its most abundant isotope
heavier isotopes of many elements are unstable; their atoms decompose spontaneously into more stable forms; process of atomic decay radioactivity
isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior radioisotope
disintegration of radioactive nucleus may be compared to a(n) tiny explosion
occurs when subatomic alpha (α) particles, beta (β) particles, or gamma (γ) rays are ejected from atomic nucleus atomic decay / radioactivity
in radioisotopes, packets of 2protons + 2neutrons alpha (α) particles
in radioisotopes, electron-like negative particles beta (β) particles
in radioisotopes, electromagnetic energy gamma (γ) rays
associate in one way to form protons and another way to form neutrons; dense nuclear particles are compose of even smaller particles calls quarks
holds nuclear particles together; weaker in heavier isotopes leading to atomic disintegration glue
when radioisotopes disintegrate, the element may transform into a different element
used in clinical setting for diagnosis; localize and illuminate damaged or cancerous tissues; i.e.iodine-131 most radioisotopes
radioisotope used to determine size and activity of thyroid gland, and to detect thyroid cancer iodine-131
use radioisotopes to probe workings of molecules deep within body PET scan
all radioisotopes, regardless of purpose used, __ living tissue and lose their __ behavior damage; radioactive
vary dramatically from hours to 1000s of years; time required for radioisotope to lose one-half of its activity is called half-life
lowest penetrating power and is least damaging to living tissue alpha emission
radioisotope second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer; one source is decaying radon inhaled alpha particles
results naturally from uranium in the earth radon
radioisotope has greatest penetrating power gamma emission
radium-26, cobalt-60, and certain other radioisotopes that decay by gamma emission are used to __ localized cancer destroy
does not damage organic molecules directly; instead knocks electrons out of other atoms and sends them flying, leaving behind unstable molecules that do the damage ionizing radiation
particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds molecule
most atoms do not exist in __ __, but instead are chemically combined with other atoms to form molecules free state
two or more atoms of same element combine, resulting substance called molecule of that element
when 2 hydrogen atoms bond, the product is a molecule of __ __, written as H2(subscript)- hydrogen gas
when 2 oxygen atoms combine, product is __ __, written as O(subscript)2 oxygen gas
sulfur atoms commonly combine to form __ __ containing 8 sulfur atoms, written as S(subscript)8 sulfur molecules
substance composed of 2 or more different elements, atoms of which are chemically united; chemically pure and all molecules are identical compound
molecule is __ __ of compound that still has specific characteristics of the compound molecule
properties of compounds are usually __ __ from those of atoms they contain very different
impossible to tell what atoms are in a compound without analyzing it chemically
substances composed of 2 or more components physically intermixed mixtures
most matter in nature exists in form of mixtures, but there are only 3 basic types solutions, colloids, and suspensions
homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids solutions
means that mixture has exactly same composition or makeup throughout; sample taken from any part of mixture has same composition as sample taken from any other part homogeneous
substance capable of or used in dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances; substance present in greatest amount; usually liquids solvent
substance that is dissolved in a solution; substance present in smallest amount solute
body's chief solvent water
most solutions in body; contain gases, liquids, or solids dissolved in water; usually transparent or not visible to naked eye, do not scatter in light, and do not settle out; saline solution true solution
solute of true solutions are __, usually in form of individual atoms and molecules minute
if beam of light is passed through a true solution, you will not see path of light
may be indicated in various ways, solutions are described in terms of their concentration
percent of solute in total solution; referring to solute percentage parts per 100 parts
milligrams per deciliter mg/dl
way to express the concentration of a solution; moles per liter of solution, indicated by italicized M molarity
any element or compound is = to its atomic weight or its molecular weight (sum of atomic weights) measured in grams mole
mass of one mole of a chemical compound equal in grams to the compound's molecular weight gram molecular weight
__ __ of a chemical substance is one gram molecular weight of substance in 1L of solution one-molar solution
one mole of any substance always contains exactly same number of __ __ solute particles
number of molecules in one mole of any substance, 6.02 × 10^23 Avogadro's number
because solute concentrations in body fluids tend to be quite low, those values are usually reported in terms of millimoles (m[italicized]M; 1/1000 mole)
heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles (usually proteins) do not settle out readily. colloids
another term for colloids is emulsions
colloids often appear transparent or __ and although solute particles are larger than in true solutions, they still do not __ __ milky; settle out
colloid solute particles do __ __ so path of light beam is visible when shone through colloid mixture scatter light
reversible change of a colloid from a fluid (sol) to a more solid (gel) state sol-gel transformation
colloids have ability to undergo sol-gel transformations
sol0gel transformations underlie many important cells activities, such as cell division and changes in cell shape; semifluid material in living cells, is colloid cytosol
heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out; sand or blood are examples suspensions
living material is most __ __ of all, since it contains all three kinds of mixtures interacting with one another complex mixture
chief difference btwn mixtures and compounds is that no __ __ occurs btwn components of mixture; properties of atoms and molecules not changed when become part of mixture; only physically intermixed chemical bonding
depending on mixture, components can be separated by __ means; compounds can only be separated into constituents atoms by __ means (breaking bonds) physical; chemical
some mixtures are homogeneous, and other are heterogeneous; all compounds are __ heterogeneous
not a physical structure; instead energy relationship between electrons of reacting atoms, and is made or broken in less than trillionth of second chemical bond
regions of space that consecutively surround atomic nucleus, where electrons form electron cloud electron shell
actual number of electron shells __ in given atom depends on number of electrons that atom has occupied
each electron shell contains __ __ __ orbitals one or more
each electron shell represents a different energy level, because this prompts you to think of electrons as particles with certain amount of potential energy
electron shell and energy level are terms __ __ used interchangeably
potential energy an electron has depends on energy level that electron occupies
attraction btwn positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons is greatest closer to nucleus
electrons farthest from nucleus have __ potential energy and are __ likely to interact chemically with other atoms greatest; most
it takes electrons closer to nucleus more energy to overcome __ __ and reach more distant energy levels nuclear attraction
electrons farther from nucleus are least __ __ by own atomic nucleus and most easily influenced by other atoms and molecules tightly held
shell immediately surrounding nucleus that accommodates only 2 electrons Shell1
hold max. of 8 electrons Shell2
has room for 18 electrons Shell3
shell 1 fills __ before electrons appear in shell2 completely
when considering __ __, only electrons in atom's outermost energy level are important bonding behavior
when outermost energy level of atom is filled to capacity, or contains 8 electrons, the atom is stable and considered chemically inert
lacking the power to move; deficient in active properties; unreactive inert
any of a group of rare gases that include helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and sometimes radon and that exhibit great stability and extremely low reaction rates noble gases
atoms in which electrons in outermost energy level contain fewer than 8 electron tend to __, __, or __ electrons with other atoms to achieve stability gain; lose; share
outermost electron shell (energy level) of an atom that contains electrons; that portion of it containing electrons that are chemically reactive valence shell
number of electrons that can participate in bonding is __ to 8 limited
tendency of atoms to interact in such a way that they have eight electrons in their valence shell; key to chemical reactivity octet rule
three major types of chemical bonds that result from attractive force btwn atoms ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
atom with a positive or negative electric charge ion
chemical bond formed by electron transfer between atoms ionic bond
atom that gains one or more electrons, in ionic bonds, electron acceptor
ion carrying one or more negative charges and therefore attracted to a positive pole; electron acceptor acquires net negative charge anion
atom that loses electron, in ionic bonds, electron donor
ion with a positive charge; electron donor acquires net positive charge cation
both are formed whenever electron transfer btwn atoms occurs anion and cation
since opposite charges attract, anions and cations tend to stay close together, resulting in __ bond ionic
commonly formed btwn atoms with one or two valence shell electrons and atoms with seven valence shell electrons ionic bonds
most fall in chemical category called salts ionic compounds
large array of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds crystals
in dry state, salts do not exist as __ __ instead they form crystals individual molecules
electrons do not have to be completely transferred for atoms to achieve stability
chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms covalent bond
in covalent bonds, the shared electron pair orbits around the molecule as a(n) __, satisfying stability needs of each atom whole
when two atoms share one pair of electrons it forms single covalent bond
when atoms share 2 or 3 electron pairs it results in double or triple covalent bonds
electrically balanced molecules nonpolar molecules
nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms polar molecules
helps determine what other molecules or atoms it can interact with molecule shape
having a tendency to attract electrons; small atoms, with 6 or 7 valance shell electrons, are electron-hungry and attract electrons very strongly electronegativity
most atoms with only 1 or 2 valence shell electrons have a tendency to release electrons; electron-attracting ability so low they usually lose their valance shell electrons to other atoms electropositive
because it is linear and symmetrical, electron-pulling ability of one oxygen atom offsets that of the other; result in shared electrons that orbit entire molecule making it nonpolar compound carbon dioxide
nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms; example is water molecule dipole
orient themselves toward other dipoles or toward charged particles, such as ions and some proteins, and play essential roles in chemical reactions in body cells polar molecules
more like attraction than true bonds; common btwn dipoles; responsible for tendency of water molecules to cling together and form films, or surface tension; too weak for bind atoms together to form molecules, but important intramolecular bonds hydrogen bond
attractive force exerted upon the surface molecules of a liquid by the molecules beneath that tends to draw the surface molecules into the bulk of the liquid and makes the liquid assume the shape having the least surface area surface tension
hold different parts of single larger molecule in specific 3D shape hydrogen intramolecular bond
some biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA, have numerous hydrogen bonds that help __ and __ their structures maintain; stabilize
process in which molecules are formed, changed, or broken down chemical reaction
chemical reactions in symbolic form; like sentence describing what happens in a reaction chemical equations
in chemical equations, number written in __ indicates that the atoms are joined by chemical bonds subscript
in chemical equations, number written as __ denotes number of unjoined atoms or molecules prefix
substance taking part in a chemical reaction reactant
substance produced from one or more other substances as a result of chemical change product
chemical equations include number and kind of __ substances, reactants reacting
the relative proportion of each reactant and product balanced equation
chemical equations include chemical compositions of __ products
chemical formula for a compound existing as discrete molecules that gives the total number of atoms of each element in a molecule molecular formula
chemical reaction in which larger, more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones synthesis or combination reaction
synthesis reactions always involve bond __ formation
are basis of constructive, or anabolic, activities in body cells; such as joining small molecules called amino acids into large protein molecules; conspicuous in rapidly growing tissue synthesis reactions
chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms; underlie all degredative, or catabolic, processes in body cells decomposition reaction
chemical reaction in which bonds are both made and broken; atoms become combined with different atoms; involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions displacement or exchange reactions
reaction that couples the oxidation (loss of electrons) of one substance with the reduction (gain of electrons) of another substance; are decomposition reactions and also special type of exchange reaction oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation-reduction reaction is also called redox reaction
__ reaction, in redox reactions, are basis of all reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy decomposition
__ reaction, in redox reactions, are special because electrons are exchanged btwn reactants exchange
the electron donor, in redox reactions, is said to be oxidized
change (a compound) by increasing the proportion of the electronegative part or change (an element or ion) from a lower to a higher positive valence : remove one or more electrons from (an atom, ion, or molecule) oxidize
the electron acceptor, in redox reactions, is said to become reduced
to change (an element or ion) from a higher to a lower oxidation state reduce
redox reactions occur when ionic compounds are formed
not all redox reactions involve __ __ of electrons; some simply change pattern of __ __ in covalent bond complete transfer; electron sharing
in redox reactions, electrons are either __ __, as H is removed and takes its electron with it, or __, as shared electrons spend more time in vicinity of very electronegative oxygen atom lost entirely; relatively
importance of redox reactions in living systems is seen in equation for cellular respiration
chemical reaction that releases energy; yield products with less energy than initial reactants along with energy that can be harvested for other uses exergonic reaction
because chemical bonds represent store chemical energy, all chemical reactions ultimately result in net __ or __ of energy absorption; release
with few exceptions, __ and __ reactions are exergonic reactions catabolic; redox
chemical reaction that absorbs energy; contain more potential energy in their chemical bonds than in their reactants endergonic reaction
__ reactions are typically energy-absorbing endergonic reactions; energy released when fuel molecules brown down (oxidized) captured in ATP molecules and then used to synthesize complex biological molecules body needs to sustain life anabolic
theoretically, all chemical reactions are reversible
reversibility of a reaction, in a chemical equation, is represented by a(n) double arrow
when double arrows, in chemical equations, differ in length, __ __ indicated major direction in which reaction proceeds longer arrow
when double arrows, in chemical equations, are of equal length neither forward or reverse reaction is dominant
state of apparent repose created by two reactions proceeding in opposite directions at equal speed chemical equilibrium
once chemical equilibrium is achieved, there is no further __ __ in amounts of reactants and products unless more of either are added to the mix net change
in chemical equilibrium, product molecules are still __ and __ __, but balance established remains unchanged formed; broken down
many biological reactions show little tendency to go in reverse direction, for all practical purposes they are considered irreversible
chemical reactions that release energy will not go in __ __ unless energy is put back into the system opposite direction
the breakdown of glucose via reactions of cellular respiration will __ go in reverse never
if product of reaction is continuously removed from reaction site, it is unavailable to take part in __ __; this occurs when CO2 released during glucose breakdown leaves cells, enters blood, and eventually removed from body bu lungs reverse reaction
for atoms and molecules to react chemically, they must __ with enough force to overcome repulsion btwn their electrons collide
interaction btwn valence shell electrons cannot occur __ __ long distance
depends on how fast particles are moving force of collision
solid, forceful collisions btwn rapidly moving particles in which valence shells __ are much more likely to cause reactions than are collision in which particles __ __ each other overlap; lightly graze
increasing temperature of substance increases __ __ of its particles and __ of their collisions kinetic energy; force
chemical reactions proceed __ __ at higher temperatures more quickly
chemical reactions progress most rapidly when __ __ are present in high numbers, because chance of __ __ is greater reacting particles; successful collision
smaller the reacting particle, the __ a chemical reaction goes at a given temperature faster
substance that increases rate of chemical reaction without itself becoming chemically changed or part of the product catalyst
any of numerous complex proteins produced by living cells, and catalyze specific biochemical reactions at body temperatures enzymes
term enzyme describes a(n) biological catalyst
study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter; organic or inorganic biochemistry
any compound composed of atoms (some of which are carbon) held together by covalent (shared electron) bonds organic compounds
all organic compounds are __ bonded molecules, and many are large covalently
chemical substances that do not contain carbon, including water, salts, and many acids and bases inorganic compounds
organic and inorganic compounds are __ for life essential
most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material; makes up 60-80% of all living things water
water absorbs and releases large amount of __ before changing appreciably in temperature heat
water's __ __ __ prevents sudden changes in temperature caused by external factors or internal conditions that release heat rapidly high heat capacity
as a part of blood, water redistributes heat among body tissues, ensuring __ __ temperature homeostasis
water changes from a liquid to a gas when it evaporates or vaporizes
requires that large amounts of heat be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together water vaporization
water is often called the universal solvent
biological molecules do not react chemically unless they are in __, and virtually all chemical reactions occurring in the body depend on water's __ properties solution; solvent
because water molecules are __, they orient themselves with their slightly negative ends toward positive ends of solutes, and vice versa, first attracting solute molecules then surrounding polar
explains why ionic compounds and other small reactive molecules dissociate in water forming a true solution polarity of water
process by which chemical combination breaks up into simpler constituents; especially, one that results from action of energy (heat) on gas or of solvent on dissolved substance dissociation
layers of water molecules around large charged molecules, shielding them from effects of other charged substances in vicinity and preventing them from settling out of solution hydration layers
protein-water mixtures; such as blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biological colloids
water is body's major __ __ because it is such an excellent solvent transportation medium
specialized molecules that lubricate the body, mucus, also use water as their dissolving medium
water is a(n) __ __ in many chemical reactions important reactant
chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water hydrolysis reactions
process by which a large molecule is synthesized by removing water and covalently bonding smaller molecules together dehydration synthesis
water forms a(n) __ __ around certain body organ, helping protect them from physical trauma resilient cushion
cushion, reactivity, polarity, high heat capacity, and high heat vaporization are the reasons that water is so vital to life
ionic compound containing cations other than H+, and anions other than hydroxyl ion (OH-) salt
when salts are dissolved in water they __ into their component ions dissociate
chemical substances, such as salts, acids, and bases, that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting an electrical current electrolytes
__ __ are electrolytes all ions
groups of atoms that bear an overall charge, such as sulfate, are called polyatomic ions
most plentiful salts in the body are __ __ that make bones and teeth hard calcium phosphates
NaCl, CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), and KCl (potassium chloride) are salts that are commonly found in the body
salts in their __ __ play vital roles in body function ionized forms
electrolyte properties are essential for nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction sodium and potassium
forms part of hemoglobin molecules that transport oxygen within RBCs ionic iron
important to activity of some enzymes ionic zinc and copper
maintaining proper ionic balance in body fluids is one of crucial hemostatic roles of the kidneys
acids and bases are __; ionizing and dissociating in water, and can then conduct electrical currents electrolytes
substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts; proton donor; have sour taste and can react with (dissolve) many metals, and burn through substances acid
hydrogen atom minus its electron and therefore carrying a positive charge (i.e., a proton) hydrogen ions
substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts; an acid proton donor
concentration of protons determines the __ of a solution acidity
anions have __ __ on acidity little effect
molecular formula for acids have hydrogen __ __ written first
substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions; a proton acceptor; feel slippery and have bitter taste base
substance that takes up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts; commonly referred to as a base proton acceptor
ionic compound of hydroxide with an element or group; magnesium hydroxide (mild of magnesia) and sodium hydroxide (lye) hydroxides
like acids, hydroxides dissociate when __ in water, but hydroxl ions and cations are __ dissolved; liberated
important base in body, abundant in blood bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)
common waste product of protein breakdown in body, also a base; has one pair of unshared electrons that strongly attracts protons ammonia (NH3)
when ammonia accepts a proton it becomes ammonium ion
measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution pH units
having pH of less than 7; more hydrogen ion in a solution, the more acidic the solution
greater concentration of hydroxl ions the more __, or alkaline basic
of, relating to, containing, or having the properties of an alkali or alkali metal; having pH of more than 7 alkaline
pH scale is __, which means each successive change of one pH unit represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration logarithmic
is thus defined as negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter, or -log[H+] pH of a solution
neither acid nor basic, neither acid nor alkaline; having pH value of 7.0; solution contains both hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions at the same concentration 1.00×10›7 (pH - pOH) neutral
absolutely pure __ __ has a pH of 7 distilled water
displacement reaction in which mixing an acid and a base forms water and a salt neutralization reaction
when acids and bases are mixed they react with one another in displacement reactions to forms __ and __ water; salt
chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions buffer
in __ __, acids and bases are extremely damaging to living tissue high concentrations
homeostasis of __ __ is regulated by kidneys and lungs, and by buffers acid-base balance
buffers resist abrupt and large __ in pH of body fluids by releasing hydrogen ions when pH begins to rise and by binding hydrogen ions when pH drops swings
normally varies within a narrow range of a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 blood
acidity of a solution reflects __ __ hydrogen ions, not those still bound to anions only free
acids that dissociate completely and irreversibly in water; they can dramatically change pH of a solution; hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are examples strong acids
acids that do not dissociate completely, like carbonic acid and acetic acid; do not affect pH weak acids
weak acids dissociate in a(n) __ __ and molecules of intact acid are in dynamic equilibrium with dissociated ions, allowing them to play important roles in __ __ system of body predictable way; chemical buffer
bases that dissociate easily in water and quickly tie up H+; e.g. hydroxides strong base
maintains pH homeostasis of blood; major blood buffer; resists changes in blood pH by shift to right or left as H+ ions are added to or removed from blood carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
molecules that are unique to living systems and all contain carbon; interactions with other molecules typically involve only their functional groups organic compounds
carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are both __ compounds inorganic
no other small atom atom is as precisely __ as carbon electroneutral
never loses/gains electrons, only shares; forms covalent bonds w/other elements, as well as like atoms with its 4 valence share electrons; helps form long chain-like molecules, ring structures, and other structures uniquely suited carbon
chain-like molecules are common in fats
ring structures are typical of __ and __ carbohydrates; steroids
substance of high molecular weight with long, chain-like molecules consisting of many similar (repeated) units (monomers), joined together by dehydration synthesis polymers
chemical compound that can undergo polymerization monomer
H+ atom is removed from 1 monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from monomer to be joined with; covalent bond unites monomers, water molecule is released; removal of water molecule at bond site occurs each time monomer added to polymer chain polymerization
organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose; represent 1-2% of cell mass; hydrogen and oxygen atoms occur in same 2:1 ratio carbohydrate
carbohydrate can be classified according to __ and __ size; solution
literally, one sugar; building block of carbohydrates; e.g., glucose; single-chain or single-ring structures containing from 3-7 carbon atoms; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms occur in ration 1:2:1 monosaccharide
larger the carbohydrate molecule, the less __ in water soluble
C6H12O6 glucose
C5H10O5 ribose
monosaccharides are named generically according to number of __ __ they contain carbon atoms
most important monosaccharides in body are pentose and hexose
five-carbon pentose
six-carbon hexose
one of two or more substances that has the same molecular formula but with its atoms arranged differently isomer
isomers of glucose galactose and fructose
literally, double sugar; e.g., sucrose, lactose; formed when two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis disaccharide
important disaccharides in the diet sucrose, lactose, maltose
glucose + fructose; cane or table sugar sucrose
glucose + galactose; found in milk lactose
glucose + glucose; called malt sugar maltose
disaccharides are too large to pass through __ __, and must be digested to simple sugar units to be absorbed by digestive tract into blood (hydrolysis) cell membranes
chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water hydrolysis
literally, many sugars, a polymer of linked monosaccharides; e.g., starch, glycogen; large fairly insoluble molecules; ideal storage products polysaccharide
only 2 polysaccharides are of major importance to body starch and glycogen
storage carbohydrate formed by plants starch
storage carbohydrate of animal tissues; stored in skeletal muscles and liver glycogen
unable to digest; provides bulk that helps moves feces through colon cellulose
provide a ready, easily used source of cellular food major function of carbohydrates
organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol; insoluble in water but dissolves readily in others of like and inorganic solvents; proportions of oxygen much lower lipid
found in some of more complex lipids phosphorus
include triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids and eicosanoids lipids
fats and oils composed of fatty acids and glycerol; body's most concentrated source of energy fuel; also known as neutral fats; found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs triglyceride
triglycerides are also called neutral fats
fatty acids and glycerol are the building blocks that compose triglycerides
linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with organic acid group at one end; constituent of fat fatty acids
triglycerides have 3:1 ration of __ acids to __ fatty; glycerol
modified simple sugar (a sugar alcohol); a building block of fats glycerol
involves attaching 3 fatty acid chains to single glycerol molecule by dehydration synthesis; results in E-shaped molecule fat synthesis
glycerol backbone is __ in all triglycerides same
fatty acid chains __, resulting in different kinds of fats and oils vary
hydrocarbon chains make triglycerides __ molecules nonpolar
oil & water do not mix because __ & __ molecules do not interact polar; nonpolar
triglycerides provide body's most efficient and compact form of __ __, and when they are oxidized, they yield large amount of __ stored energy; energy
triglycerides are found mainly __ __ beneath skin
length of triglyceride's fatty acid chains and their degree of saturation with H atoms determine how __ molecule is at given temperature solid
fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds btwn carbon atoms; chains are straight and, at room temp, molecules are packed closely together, forming solid saturated
fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds btwn carbons atoms; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated unsaturated
triglycerides with short fatty acid chain are __ and typical of __ __ oils; plant lipids
oils that have been solidified by additional of H atoms at site of double carbon bonds trans fats
found naturally in cold-water fish; appear to decrease risk of heart disease and some inflammatory diseases omega-3 fatty acids
Contain C, H, and O lipid
modified lipid, contains phosphorus; diglycerides with phosphorus-containing group (polar) and 2 rather than 3, fatty acid chains (nonpolar) phospholipid
phospholipids are found in __ membranes and __ tissue cell; nervous
group of chemical substances, including certain hormones and cholesterol; fat soluble; contain little oxygen steroids
unique characteristic of phosphorus-containing (head) being polar and attracting other polar particles, such as water or ions, allows them to be used as chief material for building cellular membranes
steroids are basically __ molecules made of four __ hydrocarbon rings flat; interlocking
single most important molecule in steroid chemistry; steroid alcohol C27H45OH present in animal cells and body fluids cholesterol
cholesterol __ membrane fluidity, regulates
cholesterol may cause __ arteriosclerosis
cholesterol functions as __ molecule in various metabolic pathways, and as __ of LDL precursor; constituent
cholesterol is __ __ for synthesis of vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts raw material
steroid hormones are present in body in __ quantities, and are __ for homeostasis small; vital
diverse lipids, chiefly derived from 20-carbon fatty acid (arachidonic acid) found in all cell membranes eicosanoids
most important of eicosanoids; play roles in blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and labor contractions prostaglandins
synthesis and inflammatory actions of prostaglandins are blocked by NSAIDs and COX inhibitors
full set of proteins made by body proteome
complex substance containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, many contain phosphorus and sulfur as well; composes 10–30% of cell mass; have most varied functions of any molecule in body proteins
organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building block of protein; 20 common types amino acids
amino acids have two important functional groups amine (--NH2) and organic acid group (--COOH)
all amino acids are identical except for a single group of atoms R group
R group makes each amino acid __ __ chemically unique
bond joining amine group of 1 amino acid to acid carboxyl group of a 2nd amino acid w/loss of water molecule peptide bond
large, complex molecules containing from 100 to over 10,000 subunits macromolecules
two amino acids dipeptide
three amino acids tripeptide
ten or more amino acids polypeptide
polypeptides containing more than 50 amino acids are called __, and most are __ containing from 100 to over 10,000 amino acids proteins; macromolecules
20 amino acids can be considered a 20-letter __, used in specific combinations to form "words" or __ alphabet; proteins
changes in kinds/positions of amino acids can yield proteins with different __ or those that are __ functions; nonfunctional
all proteins are constructed from __ __ of 20 common amino acids different combinations
linear sequence of amino acids composing polypeptide chain; resembles strand of amino acid "beads"; backbone of molecule primary structure of protein
proteins do not normally exist as simple, linear amino acids, instead twisting/bending upon themselves to form more complex __ __ secondary structure
most common type of 2ndary structure of amino acid chain in proteins; resembles coils of telephone cord or slinky toy alpha (α)-helix
alpha (α)-helix formed by coiling of __ __ and stabilized by hydrogen bonds formed btwn NH and CO groups in amino acids in __ __ which are approx 4 amino acids apart primary chain; primary chain
hydrogen bonds in alpha (α)-helix always link __ __ of same chain together different parts
2ndary structure; primary polypeptide chains do not coil, but are linked side by side by hydrogen bonds to formed a pleated, ribbon-like structure; resembles accordion beta (β)-pleated sheet
in beta (β)-pleated sheet, H bonds may link __ polypeptides chains as well as different parts of __ __ that has folded back on itself different; different parts
single polypeptide chain may exhibit both types of __ __ at various places along its length secondary structures
next higher level of complexity in proteins, which is superimposed on 2ndary structure tertiary structure
tertiary structure achieved when alpha (α)-helical or (β)-pleated regions of polypeptide chain fold upon one another
tertiary structure achieved, in proteins, when (α)-helical or (β)-pleated regions create compact, ball-like molecule called globular molecule
composed of compactly folded polypeptide chains arranged in a spherical form globular
globular is maintained by __ and __ bonds btwn amino acids that are often far apart in __ chain covalent; hydrogen; primary
when two or more polypeptide chains aggregate in regular manner to form complex protein, protein has quaternary structure
consisting of, containing, or being an atom bonded to four other atoms quaternary
protein that transports thyroid hormone in blood and exhibits quaternary structural level prealbumin
arterial blood pH is 7.4
venous blood pH is 7.35
extended and strand-like; exhibit only 2ndary structure, but most have tertiary/quaternary structure as well fibrous proteins
overall structure of protein determines __ function biological
proteins are classified according to overall appearance and shape as fibrous or globular
most abundant protein in body; fibrous; composite of helical tropocollagen molecules, packed together side by side to form strong rope-like structure collagen
fibrous proteins are __ in water, very stable, ideal for __ support and tensile strength to body's tissues insoluble; mechanical
__ proteins incl keratin, elastin, and certain contractile proteins of muscle fibrous
fibrous proteins are chief building materials of body, which are also known as structural proteins
compact, spherical proteins that have at least tertiary structure; water-soluble, chemically active molecules, and play crucial role in virtually all biological process globular proteins
globular proteins are also known as functional proteins
antibodies, protein-based hormones regulate growth/development, and enzymes are catalysts that oversee just about every chemical reaction in body globular/functional proteins
depends on specific 3-D structure, and intramolecular bonds, particularly hydrogen bonds, are important in maintaining that structure activity of protein
individual proteins vary in their __ to environmental conditions, __ begin to break when pH drops or temperature rises above physiological levels, causing proteins to denature sensitivity; H-bonds
when pH/temperature levels rise above physiological levels, causing proteins to unfold and lose their specific 3-D shape, they are said to be denatured
if protein structure is damaged beyond repair it is said to be irreversibly denatured
can no longer perform physiological roles because their function depends on presence of specific arrangements of active sites on their surface, when globular proteins are denatured
region, especially of biologically active protein (as an enzyme), where catalytic activity takes place and whose shape permits binding only of a specific reactant molecule active site
proteins that are intimately involved in normal functioning of all cells chaperones and enzymes
any of a class of globular proteins (as heat shock proteins) that facilitate proper folding of proteins by binding to and stabilizing unfolded or partially folded proteins molecular chaperone
folding process of proteins requires help of molecular chaperones to ensure folding is quick and accurate
specific molecular chaperones prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect __ of polypeptide chains or their __ with other polypeptides folding; association
specific molecular chaperones __ desired folding and association process aid
specific molecular chaperones help __ proteins and certain metal ions (copper, zinc, iron) across cell membranes translocate
specific molecular chaperones promote __ of dmgd or denatured proteins breakdown
specific molecular chaperones interact w/other cells to __ __ response to diseased cells in body trigger immune
pg 51 heat shock proteins (hsp)
polar covalent bond bond in which electrons are NOT shared equally
ionic bond bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved
nonpolar covalent bond bond in which electrons are equally shared
hydrogen bond type of bond important in tying different parts of same molecule together into 3D structure
cation electrically charged particle from loss of an electron
neutron neutral subatomic particle
atom smallest particle of an element that retains is properties
molecule smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties
anion electrically charged particle from gain of an electron
legs moving the pedals of a bicycle mechanical energy
bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work chemical energy
energy that travels in waves; part of the electromagnetic spectrum radiant energy
represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor or the flow of ions across a membrane electrical energy
sex hormones steroids
regulate inflammation eicosanoids
integral to cell membranes phospholipids
used as energy stores & for insulation triglycerides
linear sequence of amino acids comprising a protein chain primary structure
composed of alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets 2ndary structure
alpha and beta regions fold upon each other tertiary structure
two or more proteins aggregated together quaternary structure
synthesis reaction A + B → AB
decomposition AB → A + B
exchange reaction AB + C → AC + B
reversible reaction A + B ←→ AB
saturated lipid with all single bonds
monounsaturated lipid w/one double bond
polyunsaturated lipid w/more than one double bond
Bad fats trans fats
good fats Omega-3 fats
ninety-six percent of body weight is made up of only 4 elements
colloid can undergo __ __, whereas a suspension cannot sol-gel transformation
both colloids and suspensions are __ solutions homogenous
chemical bonds are energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms
valance shell is outermost energy shell of an atom
ionic bond is a chemical bond formed by transfer of one/more electrons from valance shell of one atom to that of other
polar molecule is formed when electrons shared between two/more electrons in covalent bond are unequally shared
dipole molecules are not electrically balanced
anabolism is the process by which atoms or molecules combine to form larger more complex molecules
reactions which release energy are exergonic reactions
catabolic reactions involve breaking down of large complex molecules into smaller, simpler molecules & atoms
chemical reactions take place faster if reacting particles are present in a high number
factor would speed up the rate of a chemical reaction high concentration of reagents
hydrolysis molecule of water is added for each bond broken
electrolytes are ions, which are capable of conducting an electrical current
pH is a concentration unit used to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
chaperonins are enzymes that aid in desired folding of proteins
prostaglandins are type of eicosanoids, which are diverse lipids found in the cell membrane
function of microRNA (miRNA) is control genetic expressions by turning some genes on & others off, thus controlling genetic expression
function of messenger RNA (mRNA) is to transfer genetic code to ribosome for protein synthesis
Sugars contain CHO
organic compound is analyzed, & it has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms; this compound is most likely a(n) carbohydrate
carbohydrates have CHO with 1:2:1 ratio
catabolic reactions involve release of energy
buffers tend to prevent dramatic changes in the pH when __ __ are added to a solution protons donors
buffers accept or release __ protons
exergonic chemical reactions that release energy
ionic bonds form between two atoms when one atom donates an electron to the other atom
building blocks of RNA and DNA are nucleotides
cholesterol is the most important steroid molecule
sequence of amino acids in a protein constitutes the __ structure of the protein primary
bases are proton acceptors
charged particle is correctly called a(n) ion
synthesis reaction always involves bond formation
carbon is found in ALL organic compounds
ionic bonds are generally found in inorganic compounds
covalent bonds are __ than hydrogen bonds stronger
elements are unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
glucose is an example of a(n) monosaccharide
isotopes differ from each other only in number of neutrons contained
lipids are humans' most plentiful source of stored energy
lipids are NOT preferred source of energy for fueling cellular activity
glucose is preferred source of energy for fueling cellular activity
oxygen is present in proteins and fats
number of electrons in an atom are equal to number of protons
compounds usually have very different properties from the atoms that make them
something with a pH of 5 would have more H+ ions than OH- ions
proteins biochemical building blocks/precursor amino acids
DNAs biochemical building blocks/precursor nucleotides
lipids biochemical building blocks/precursor glycerol & fatty acids
carbohydrates biochemical building blocks/precursor monosaccharides
atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus
isotopes majority of elements have two or more structural variations
isotopes are not necessarily present in equal amounts in a given element
if the pH or temperature of environment that contains protein is altered dramatically, then protein may become denatured
atoms of any given element will differ from those of all other elements and provide its unique physical and chemical properties
emulsions are heterogeneous mixtures
water is one of the most important polar molecules in a living system
because enzymes are unchanged by their catalytic role & can act again/again, cells need only small amounts of each enzyme
enzyme's active site binds to substrate(s) on which it acts, temporarily forming an enzyme-substrate complex
enzyme-substrate complex undergoes __ __ that form the product(s) internal rearrangements
enzyme releases the __ of the reaction product(s)
Created by: lfrancois