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A+P II Ch. 29

Inheritance

QuestionAnswer
What is inheritance? The passage of hereditary traits from one generation to the next.
Why does each nucleus of all human cells except gametes contain 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes? One chromosome of each pair comes from the father, the other comes from the mother. Each pair contains the same genes, just different forms.
What are the alternative forms of a gene that code for the same trait called? Allele
What do you call a permanent heritable change in an allele that produces a different variant. Mutation
Genetic makeup (combination of alleles for a gene). Genotype
Expression of ones genetic makeup (appearance). Phenotype
The same alleles for a gene. Two types. Homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive.
Two different alleles for a gene. Heterozygous.
PKU PKU or Phenylkeonuria:an inherited disease where the recessive allele fails to produce the functional enzyme phenylalanine hydrozylase. The dominant allele produces the functional enzyme.
Tool used to show possible combinations of alleles in offspring of parents whose genotype for a gene is known. Punnet square.
What percentage of gametes produced by a heterozygous parent would contain the recessive allele? 50%
What percentage of zygotes formed from 2 heterozygous parents would produce homozygous genotypes? 50%
What percentage of zygotes formed from 2 heterozygous parents would express the recessive allele? 25%
Example of disease caused by a dominant allele. What genotypes would get the disease? Huntington disease. Both homozygous dominant and heterozygous individuals would get the disease.
Abnormal number of chromosomes called what (4 total terms). Cause? Nondisjunction caused by an error in cell division causes Aneuploid cells. Monosomic cells are missing 1 chromosome (2n-1). Trisomic cell has 1 additional chromosome (2n+1).
Example of additional chromosomes. Down syndrome. Trisomy 21. Presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome.
Inheritance where dominant allele masks the effect of recessive allele. Simple dominance-recessive.
Inheritance where neither allele is dominant over the other. What does the heterozygote have for a phenotype? Example? Incomplete dominance. Heterozygote has intermediate phenotype. Ex: alleles that produce normal hemoglobin (Hb^A) and hemoglobin that causes sickle-cell disease (Hb^s). Hb^AHb^S phenotype is minor problems, and obviously a carrier.
Term for genes that have more than 2 alleles. Example. Multiple-allele inheritance. ABO blood group has 3 alleles, with 4 phenotypes since A and B are co-dominant.
Inheritance where one gene does not control inherited trait. Common? Polygenic inheritance applies to most inherited traits.
Term for the combined effects of many genes and environmental factors. Examples of such traits. Complex inheritance. Skin color (sun exposure, nutrition, 3 genes), hair color, height (nutrition), metabolism rate, body build (nutrition), neural tube deficits (inadequate folic acid in mother).
Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes. How many in a somatic cell? Autosomes. 22 pairs.
The number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryote cell. Also means the complete set of chromosomes in a species, or an individual organism. Karyotype
What type of sex chromosome does a sperm carry? Ova? Each sprem has either an X or Y. Each ova has an X chromosome.
What determines an individual's sex? Whether the male gamete (sperm) that forms the zygote carries an X or a Y chromosome.
What determines a female pattern of development? Male pattern of development? When does this pattern begin? Female- absence of Y. Male- initiated by Y. Embryos identical until about 7 weeks.
Where do sex-linked inheritance genes reside? On the X chromosome.
Why are there more colorblind males than females? The allele is found on the X chromosome and males only have one X chromosome, thus one allele. It is either for color blindness or not. Females have the option of being carriers, with both the recessive and dominant allele.
Created by: 741879016