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Chapt oNe

Early Students of anatomy and physiology were most concerned with? treating illnesses and injury
Anatomy the structure of the body and its parts (what are things called)
Physiology studies the function of parts and asks how do they work?
Anatomy and Physiology are closely interrelated because? the function role of a part depends on how it is constructed
Anatomists rely on? observation and dissection
physiologists rely on? experiments
More common to discover new ______information, but _____ are being made as well. 1 Philological 2 Anabolic
What are the 9 levels of organization from smallest to largest? 1 Atom 2 Molecule 3 Macromolecules 4 Organelle 5 Cell 6 Tissue 7 Organ 8 Organ System 9 Organism
Two or more atoms comprise a? Molecule
Atoms are? simplest level
Macromolecules are? large, biologically important molecules inside the body
Organelles are? aggregates of macromolecules used to carry out a specific function in the cell
Cells are? the basic living unit
Tissue a group of cells functioning together
groups of tissues form? organs
groups of organs function together as? organ systems
organ systems functioning together make up? an organism
10 Characteristics of life? 1 Movement 2 Responsiveness 3 Growth 4 Reproduction 5 Respiration 6 Digestion 7 Absorption 8 Circulation 9 Assimilation 10 Excretion
Movement can be? internal or gross
Responsiveness reaction to internal or external change
Growth increase in size without change in shape
Respiration use of oxygen, removal of co2
Digestion breakdown of food into simpler forms
Absorption movement of substances through membranes and into fluids
circulation movement within body fluids
Assimilation changing nutrients into chemically different forms
Excretion removal of metabolic waste
What are the requirement of organisms to maintain life? water food oxygen heat and pressure
Homeostasis maintenance of a stable internal environment
what are the 3 control systems of homeostasis? Receptors, set point, effectors
Receptors provide information about certain conditions in the internal environment
Set Point what a particular value, temp, should be
effectors cause a response that alters the internal environment
Negative feed back takes the temp toward the set point
positive feedback takes a temp away from the set point
The appendicular portion of the body? the upper and lower limbs
the axial portion of the body? head neck and trunk
organs within the dorsal and ventral cavity are called? viscera
Dorsal cavity can be divided into what 2 cavity's? Cranial cavity and vertebral canal
the ventral cavity is made up of? Thoracic cavity, abdominalpelvic cavity
Thoracic cavity is divided by the? mediastinum
abdominopelvic cavity divided into? abdominal and pelvic cavity
Diaphragm thin muscle that separates the the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
cavities within the head? oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavity, and middle ear cavity
thoracic cavity is lined with? pleural membranes
parietal membrane lines the cavities
visceral pleura covers the lungs
a thin layer of _____ separates the parietal and visceral membrane? serous
The heart is surrounded by? pericardial membranes
The ____ makes up and outer sac around the heart? parietal pericardium
Covers the heart visceral pericardium
Peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity
Lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity? parietal peritoneum
covers organs? visceral peritoneum
Integumentary system is? body covering ( hair nails, skin) senses change outside the body, helps regulate body temp
Skeletal system made up of bones and ligaments. supports protects and provides frame work, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming tissues
muscular system consist of the muscle that provide body movement posture and heat
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerve and sense organs sends incoming info from receptors to impulses and muscle glands
endocrine system all glands that secrete hormones, helps integrate metabolic functions
Cardiovascular system made up of heart blood vessels, distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells
lymphatic system system consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes thymus and spleen drains excess tissues fluid and includes cells of immunity
digestive system mouth, esophagus, stomach intestines and accessory organs , receives breaks down and absorbs nutrients
respiratory system exchanges gasses between blood and air, made up of the lungs and passageways
urinary system kidneys, ureters bladder and urethra, removes waste from blood and helps maintain water and electrolyte balance
reproductive system produces new ogranisms
male reproducitve system testes accessory organs and vessels that conduct sperm to the penis
female reproductive system ovaries vagina uterine tubes uterus and external genitalia
sagittal section divides body into left and right positions
transverse section divides body into superior and inferior, "cross section"
coronal section divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
abdomen divides into 4 main sections right and left upper quadrants, and right and left lower quadrants
Created by: rgorodn



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