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Ch.20/MED 127

The Reproductive System

QuestionAnswer
What is cell division that results in gametes? Meiosis
Gametes are the males? Sperm
Gametes are the females? Egg/ovum
Sperm and egg (each haploid) join to become a? Hint: fertilized egg with 46 chromosomes Zygote
A diploid cell contains how many chromosomes? 46
A diploid cell divides how many times to end up with 4 haploid cells? Twice
The male reproductive system consists of? Testes and a series of ducts and glands
Sperm are produced in the Testes
What is the production of sperm called Spermatogenesis
Sperm is produced in the testes and transported through the? Epididymis, Ductus Deferens, Ejaculatory duct, and Urethra
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands are part of the_____________glands? Reproductive
Reproductive glands produce secretions that mix with sperm to become? Semen
Semen is ejaculated from the? Urethra
Testes are paired organs in the sac called the? Scrotum
Testes develop near the? Kidneys
Undescended testes are called? Cryptorchidism
Testes are divided into? Lobes
Sperm is produced in the? Seminiferous tubules
Sperm empties into ________(tubes) that connect to the ____________? Rete testes, epididymis
Sustentacular/Sertoli cells- stimulated by testosterone to produce what type of hormone? Inhibin
What type of cells are between the loops of seminiferous tubules? Interstitial
Testosterone is stimulated by what type of hormone to mature sperm? Lh (Luteinizing hormone)
How long is the epididymis? 20 feet
The epididymis is connected to the seminiferous tubules by the? Rete testes
The epididymis is _________(location) of each testis? Posterior
Maturation of sperm (testosterone) occurs here? Epididymis
Smooth muscle move sperm into? Ductus deferens
The ductus deferens is also known as the Vas deferens
What is the opening in the inguinal area for the spermatic cord? Inguinal canal
The inguinal canal is a common place for what? Hernias
The epididymis is made of __________ muscle? Smooth
What is a connective tissue sheath? Spermatic cord
The spermatic cord contains blood vessels, nerves, and? Ductus deferens
What is paired organs posterior to bladder? Seminole vesicle
Seminole vesicle secretes? Fructose, alkaline liquid
The alkaline liquid neutralizes acidity of? Vagina
What are the paired ducts that receive contents of seminal vesicles and ductus deferens? Ejaculatory ducts
What gland is a muscular gland inferior to the bladder? Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands are also known as? Cowper's glands
What glands are pea-sized glands? Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
The bulbourethral glands are inferior to? Prostatic urethra
The bulbourethral glands secrete what liquid to neutralize acid from urine in the urethra? Alkaline
The penis contains the? Urethra
The glans penis is the? Head
The glans penis is covered with? Foreskin
Foreskin is also known as? Prepuce
What is the surgical removal of foreskin? Circumcision
Spermatogenesis occurs in the? Seminiferous tubules
What 3 cavities of cavernous tissue are there? Corpus cavernosum (2) and Corpus sponglosum (1)
What temperature is optimal for spermatogenesis? 96 degrees
Seminiferous tubules contain sperm cells called? Spermatogenia
Spermatogonia undergo mitosis to result in how many diploid cells? 2
What is FSH? Follicle stimulating hormone
What gland is a muscular gland inferior to the bladder? Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands are also known as? Cowper's glands
What glands are pea-sized glands? Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
The bulbourethral glands are inferior to? Prostatic urethra
The bulbourethral glands secrete what liquid to neutralize acid from urine in the urethra? Alkaline
The penis contains the? Urethra
The glans penis is the? Head
The glans penis is covered with? Foreskin
Foreskin is also known as? Prepuce
What is the surgical removal of foreskin? Circumcision
Spermatogenesis occurs in the? Seminiferous tubules
What 3 cavities of cavernous tissue are there? Corpus cavernosum (2) and Corpus sponglosum (1)
What temperature is optimal for spermatogenesis? 96 degrees
Seminiferous tubules contain sperm cells called? Spermatogenia
Spermatogonia undergo mitosis to result in how many diploid cells? 2
What is FSH? Follicle stimulating hormone
What hormone stimulates sperm production FSH
What hormone stimulates testosterone production in the testes? Lh
What hormone inhibits FSH Inhibin
Spermatogenesis begins at what age? Puberty (10-14 years old)
Millions of sperm are produced each? Day
Sperm contains how many chromosomes? 23
What is similar to a lysosome located on the head? Acrosome
What digests cell membrane of the egg? Acrosome
What provides motility of sperm? Flagellum
Flagellum is powered by? ATP
Semen contains sperm and secretions from the? Seminal vesicles, prostate glad, and bulbourethral glands
What is the pH of semen 7.4
How many mL are there per ejaculation? 2-4mL
How many sperm are there per mL of semen? 100 million
The female reproductive system includes? Paired ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia
What are paired oval-shaped organs on each side of the uterus? Ovaries
What are the 3 stages/types of follicles? Primary, graafian, atretic
Primary follicles are cavities that each contain an? oocyte (immature ovum/egg)
What type of cells surround each oocyte? Follicle cells
Follicle cells secrete? Estrogen
What follicle is the mature primary follicle? Graafian
Primary follicles mature as a result of what type of hormone? FSH and estrogen
Graafian follicle ruptures as a result of what type of hormone? LH
Corpus luteum secretes? Progesterone, estrogen, inhibin, and relaxin
What are developing follicles that become useless and deteriorate after ovulation of the graafian follicle? Atretic Follicles
What ligament attaches from medial end of the ovary to uterus? Ovarian ligament
What ligament is a fold of peritoneum that covers the ovaries and attaches to the uterus? Broad ligament
What is the process of egg cell formation? Oogenesis
Oogenesis takes place in the? Ovaries
What hormone initiates growth of an ovarian follicle? FSH
Each follicle contains what kind of cell? Stem
Estrogen is a production stimulated by what hormone? FSH
Meiosis results in 3 ________ and 1 ______? Polar bodies, ovum
At what age does ova production begin? Puberty (10-14 years old)
Ova production begins at puberty and ends at what age? Menopause (45-55 years old)
Cyclical occurs approximately every ____ days? 28
What hormone causes ovulation? Lh
Ovulation is? Release of ovum
Fallopian tubes are also known as? Uterine tubes or oviducts
What tube is 4 inches long going from the ovary to the superior uterus? Fallopian tubes
What are finger-like projections superior to the ovary? Fimbriae
Fimbriae move to create a current to catch the ovum and pull it into the? Fallopian tubes
Smooth muscle creates? Peristalsis
What type of epithelium beat to move the egg or zygote if fertilized to the uterus? Ciliated
Fertilization occurs in the? Fallopian tubes
Zygote secretes? Mucus
What is implantation outside the uterus called? Ectopic pregnancy
What organ is pear-shaped posterosuperior to the bladder? Uterus
Uterus is located in what cavity? Pelvic
The uterus contains what during pregnancy? Placenta
What is the superior part where fallopian tubes enter? Fundus
What is the main central part of the uterus called? Body
What is the neck that opens in the vagina called? Cervix
What is the outer layer of the uterus called? Epimetrium (serosa)
What is a fold of visceral peritoneum? Epimetrium (serosa)
The is the middle layer of the uterus called? Myometrium
Myometrium is made up of _________muscle? Smooth
What is the innermost layer of the uterus? Endometrium
Endometrium contains how many layers? 2
What are the two layers called in the endometrium Basilar and functional
What layer of the endometrium is adjacent to myometrium? Basilar
What layer of the endometrium is highly vascular? Basilar
What layer of the endometrium is an area for mitosis? Basilar
What layer is the innermost layer of the endometrium? Functional
Which layer is regenerated and lost during each menstrual cycle if pregnancy does not occur? Functional
Which layer of the endometrium vascularizes and thickens from estrogen and progesterone? Functional
The functional layer vascularizes and thickens from estrogen and progesterone in preparation for? Pregnancy
What is a mascular tube from cervix to vaginal orifice? Vagina
The vagina is posterior to? Urethra
What is the pelvic floor of the vagina called? Perineum
The vagina is anterior to? Rectum and anus
The vagina is covered by a thin membrane called the? Hymen
Vagina is made of what type of epithelium? Stratified squamous
Normal flora produce acidic or alkaline pH to help inhibit pathogens? Acidic
The external genitalia is also known as the? Vulva
What is a small mass of erectile tissue? Clitoris
The clitoris is anterior to the? Urethra
What is the fat pad external to pubic symphysis covered in pubic hair? Mons pubis
What are lateral folds of skin called? Labia major
What are medial, smaller folds of skin surrounding the vestibule? Labia minora
Bartholin's are also known as? Vestibular glands
The Bartholin's (AKA Vestibular) glands are located near the? orifice
Bartholin's secrete lubrication during? Intercourse
Mammary glands are made of what type of glands? Lactiferous
Lactiferous (alveolar) glands are modified _______ glands that produce ______? Sweat, milk
Prolactin increases? Milk production
Oxytocin causes? Milk release
Oxytocin is stimulated by? Sucking
The menstrual cycle is influenced by what hormones? FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone
There are how many phases of the menstrual cycle 3
The first phase of the menstrual cycle is called the? Menstrual phase
The menstrual phase is marked by loss of? Functional endometrium layer
The second phase of the menstrual cycle is called the? Follicular phase
The maturation of ovum occurs in what phase? Follicular
The growth of ovarian follicles occurs in what phase? Follicular
The third phase of the menstrual cycle is called the? Luteal phase
Ruptured follicles becomes the? Corpus luteum
The corpus luteum secretes what 2 hormones? Progesterone and estrogen
Inhibin inhibits what 2 hormones? FSH and LH
What hormone decreases uterine contraction to aid in implantation? Relaxin
The menstrual cycle occurs every? 28 days
Created by: laceylake