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Neuro-Anatomy Exam I

What arteries make up the circle of willis? Anterior communicating Artery, ACA, Internal Carotdid, Posteriro Communicating Artery, PCA, Basilar Artery
What causes an intraparynchymal hemorage? Bleeding of small arteries that have entered the parynchyma.
Rupture of bridging veins causes? subdural hematoma or epiarachnoid hematoma.
Does a subdural hematoma contain venous blood or arterial blood? Why? Venous blood because it typically deals with the shearing of bridging veins.
What causes a subarachnoid hemorage? Aneurysm
An epidural hematoma is caused by the rupture of what artery? Middle meningeal artery.
What is found in the subarachnoid space? Arteries, Veins, CSF
What crosses the potential space between the arachnoid mater and the meningeal layer of the dura mater? Bridging veins and arachnoid granulations
List the layers of the meninges from external to internal. Include spaces; both actual and potential and associated blood vessels. (1)Epidural Space w/middle meningeal artery(potential)(2)Periosteal Dura(3)Venous sinuses w/arachnoid concretions(intradural)(4)meningial dura(5)subdural space(potential)crossed by bridging veins, choroid plexus and CSF (6) Pia mater, capillaries,cortex.
What is the function of the arachnoid granulations? Reabsorption of CSF into the dural venus sinuses
ACA and MCA are the terminal branches of? Internal Carotid Artery
Precentral gyrus is composed of what type of cortex? What Histological area? What histological area is anterior to the precentral gyrus. (1) Primary motor cortex (2) BA 4 (3) BA6 or premotor cortex.
Post Central gyrus is composed of what type of cortex? What histological area? What histological area is found posterior to post central gyrus? (1)Primary somatosensory cortex (2) BA 3, 1, 2 (3)BA 5, 7 or unimodal somatosensory association cortex.
What are some C shaped structures associated with the telencephalon? limbic lobe, fornix, caudate nucleus, lateral ventricle.
What ventricular structure is found anterior to the corpora quadrigemina? cerebral aquaduct
The neural plate forms from which germ layer? ectoderm
True/False. Neural crest arises from neuroectoderm as neural tube closes T
True/False. The arachnoid, pia, and dura come from mesoderm. False. The arachnoid and pia mater come from ectoderm while dura comes from mesoderm.
The lateral ventricles arise from which primary embryonic vesicles? What secondary vesicle? Prosencephalon; Telencephalon
Which of the following cavities is derived from the Midbrain? Lateral Ventricles, Third Ventricle, Cerebral Aqueduct, Fourth Ventricle, Central Canal? Cerebral Aqueduct.
The fourth ventricle is derived from which secondary vesicles? Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
The central canal is derived from which primary embryonic vesicle? Caudal neural tube (spinal cord)
Neural crest cells that migrate between neural tube and paraxial mesoderm become what? DRG
What are the perimesencephalic cisterns? Interpeduncular cistern, quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns.
What artery runs through the prepontine cistern/fossa? basilar
What is the largest cistern? cisternal magna?
What cistern is created due to the locking of DRG's in the intervertebral foramen? Lumbar cistern
The marginal zone corresponds to which Rexed's laminae? Lamina I
The corticospinal tract, in general, have two neurons. What are they known as? Upper motor neuron (UMN) in primary motor cortex and Lower motor neuron (LMN) in ventral horn of spinal cord.
What is the analogous voluntary motor tract to the corticospinal in the FACE? Corticobulbar tract
The neuronal cell body of the PCML/ALS pathway resides in which structure? Dorsal Root Ganglion
The secondary neuronal cell body of the PCML/ALS pathway resides in which structure? Nuclei in the spinal cord or brainstem
The tertiary cell body of the ALS/PCML reside in which structure. Be both general and specific. Thalamus. VPL nucleus.
The fourth order neuron of the PCML/ALS pathway resides in which structure? Primary somatosensory cortex.
What is the somatosensation of the PCML pathway? Three Answers. Fine touch, vibration sense, and proprioception.
What is the somatosensation of the ALS pathway? Three answers Pain (nociception), temperature, and crude touch.
What are the peripheral receptors of the PCML pathway? MSO, GTOs, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini endings, Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's receptors, Hair receptors.
What are the peripheral receptors of th ALS? Naked nerve endings for pain, temperature and itch.
The primary afferents in the PCML pathway are? Answer should include nerve types and size characteristics. Nerve types are A-alpha, A-beta. They are large in diameter and heavily myelinated. Fast synaptic transmission.
What are the characteristics of the primary afferents in the ALS pathway? Small diameter, lightly r unmyelinated, A-delta or type C fibers, and slow synaptic transmission.
Lesions above and below the site of decussation will yield different results. What are they? Above: Contralateral deficits Below: Ipsilateral deficits
What ALS tract mediates descending pain modulation? Spinomesencephalic tract
What ALS tract mediates arousal aspects of pain? Spinoreticular tract
Where is the reticular formation located? medulla and pons
What tract of the ALS mediates conscious perception of pain and temperature? Spinothalamic tract
What dorsal column fascicle is located at the S5-T7 vertebral levels? Gracile Fasciculus
What dorsal column fascicle is located at the T6-C1 vertebral level? Cuneate fasiculus
What is described by motor and sensory systems, exhibited by both tracts and neeurons (spinal cord, cortex, etc)? Neurons arranged in an orderly manner throughout the nervous system. Somatotopy
What are the two general somatic efferent cell columns in the ventral Horn? Lateral innervating limbs, and anteromedial innervating proximal and trunk musculature.
What are the largest neurons in the CNS? What percentage of the axons in the corticospinal tracts orginate here? Betz cells and 3%
True/False When talking about reflexes motor neurons receive disynaptic input from primary muscle spindle receptor afferents. False. They actually receive monosynaptic input form primary mscle spindle receptor afferents. Motor neurons also receive synapses from interneurons that affect extensor/flexor reaction.
Define Muscle Tone: State of readiness to resist stretch Maintenance of posture depends on resting level of firing of motor neurons.
What specifically causes hypertonia? It results from loss of inhibitory control from higher cortical levels.
What specifically causes hypotonia? A result of damage to lower motor neurons or sensory afferents.
Does the following describe an upper motor neuron or a lower motor neuron? Deficit contralateral if lesion above pyramidal decussation, deficit ipsilateral if below decussation, increased reflexes and tone, abnormal reflexes: Babinski's sign. Upper Motor Neuron
Would the following be characteristic of an upper motor neuron or a lower motor neuron? Deficit is ipsilateral to the lesion, muscle atrophy and fasciculations, reflexes and tone decreased. LMN
What is the disease that is characterized by demyelination in CNS that blocks or slows conduction of action potentials. It can be relapsing or remitting. When is the typical onset? Multiple Sclerosis and the onset is 20-40. Survival is approximately 30 years.
Disease charcterized by degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Symptoms include muscle weakness. Affects the brainstem nuclei excluding those controlling eye movements. Sensation and cognition is normal. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Guillain-Barre syndrome can attack what part of the nervous system? Typically the peripheral nerve.
Disease of the Neuromuscular Junciton. Myasthenia gravis
Disease characterized by degeneration of the ventral horn motor neurons. ALS and Polio
Disease characterized by Central Demyelination Multiple Sclerosis
Degeneration of motor neurons in cortex. ALS
ALS is characterized by selective degeneration of what? UMN-Primary motor cortex; UMN descending-lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts and corticobulbar tract; LMN-Most brainstem and anterior horn nuclei excluding III, IV, and VI; Resulting in fasciculations, atrophy, and spasticity.
BA area 6 receives prjections from basal ganglia via which nucleus of the thalamus? Ventral Anterior Nucleus
What arterial supply supplies the PLIC? lenticulostriate and anterior choroidal arteries.
What is the somatotopy of the PLIC, starting at the genu and moving posterolaterally? Face, Arm, Trunk, Leg
What artery supplies the Basis pedunculi? PCA
What is the somatotopy of the Basis pedunculi? Face medial to leg lateral
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Lateral Corticospinal tract? Primary Motor Cortex BA 4, 6, 3, 1, 2, 5, 7; Pyramidal Decussation at the cervicomedullary jnx; runts the entire cord(predominantly at cervical and lumbosacral enlargments); movement of contralateral limbs.
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Rubrospinal Tract? Red Nucleus, magnocellular division; Ventral tegmental decussation, in the midbrain; cervical cord; movement of contralateral limbs (funciton is uncertain in humans)
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Anterior Corticospinal Tract Primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area; no decussation; cervical and upper thoracics; control of bilateral axial and girdle muscles.
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Medial VST: medial and inferior vestibular nuclei. Lateral VST: lateral vestibular nucleus; no decussation; Medial VST: cervical and upper thoracics. Lateral VST entire cord; Medial VST: positioning of head and neck; lateral VST: balance.
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Reticulospinal tracts Pontine and medullary reticular formation; no decussation; entire cord; automatic posture and gait-related movements
What is the site of origin, site of decussation, levels of termination, and function of: Tectospinal tract Superior colliculus; dorsal tegmental decussation in the midbrain; cervical cord; coordination of head and eye movement (uncertain in humans).
Created by: jpriddle01